(including Jewish prominence in "radical" movements worldwide, Jewish pre-eminence in secret police terrorist agencies in the Soviet Union and Poland, Jewish communist spy networks, Jewish dominance in the Left of America, and the inevitable Jewish movement towards ethnocentric pro-Israelism and Zionism)

(Excerpts from different chapters in When Victims Rule. A Critique of Jewish Pre-Eminence in America.)

     How profoundly this paradoxical "particularism" (i.e., chauvinism) is ingrained in the Jewish consciousness is evidenced even in leftist political organizations that are supposed to be founded upon notions of universality, egalitarianism, and pan-human solidarity. In the years leading up to the Russian communist revolution in the early twentieth century, the undying obsession by most Russian Jews for themselves -- distinct from many Russian leftists around them -- often manifest itself in ethnocentric political expressions. Many Jews of Russia and Poland congregated towards their own socialist movement called the Bund. Much to the aggravation of communist party leader V. I. Lenin and his universalistic Bolshevik movement, the Bund's version of leftism insisted upon -- even within the context of the existing nation state of Russia -- special Jewish national rights beyond those civil. [AGUS, p. 164]
"It was not enough for the Bund," says Heinz-Dietrich Lowe, "to shift ... from Russian to Yiddish in its agitational programme, it had to develop a fully fledged national programme which demanded cultural autonomy for the Jews of the Russian empire." [LOWE, p. 171] When non-Jews began rioting in Russia against Jewish exclusionism and commercial exploitation in the late 1800s, "the Bund ... used these pogroms as an opportunity to intensify its economic activities and further its political aims." [LOWE, p. 171] "[The Bund's] leaders," says Joseph Marcus, "consistently conducted a class-conscious policy, ostensibly in the interests of the whole working class, but actually confined to its Jewish members." [MARCUS, p. 211]
While the Bund had a large following in Eastern Europe, notes Shmuel Ettinger,
"at the same time, the Zionist Federation, which was also being formed
by Russian Jews, stimulated the [Jewish] nationalist trends ... Among
Jewish political subgroups the Socialist Zionist Party demanded that
a Jewish society, socialist in principle, be established in a special
territory to be set aside for the Jews; the Jewish Socialist Party, the
'Seymists,' demanded a superior leadership institution, 'Sejm,' for
every one of the nations which belonged to the Federation of Russia;
the 'Peoples' Party' (Folkspartey), led by historian Simon Dubnov,
demanded a large measure of autonomy for the Jews within the
framework of the Russian state ... Many Jews also played a part
in organizing the general Russian political parties." [ETTINGER, 1984,
p. 9]
Across time and culture, even in the context of the supposed multiculturalist and egalitarian American New Left movement of the 1960's, Jews collectively tended to perceive themselves with special distinction. As Arthur Liebman noted:
"[Gentile intellectuals] really are not totally accepted into even the
secularist humanist liberal company of their quondam Jewish friends.
Jews continue to insist in indirect and often inexplicable ways on their
own uniqueness. Jewish universalism in relations between Jews and
non-Jews has an empty ring ... Still, we have the anomaly of Jewish
secularists and atheists writing their own prayer books. We find
Jewish political reformers ... ostensibly pressing for universalist
political goals -- while organizing their own political clubs which are
so Jewish in style and manner that non-Jews often feel unwelcome."
Jews have a long history of leftist political advocacy, agitation against any status quo of Christian empowerment, and profoundly disproportionate percentages of leadership roles in groups that ostensibly espouse pan-human, universalist themes. With massive Jewish escape from the working class in America, Nathan Glazer and Patrick Moynihan noted in 1963 that "the unions are increasingly less Jewish [but] Jewish labor leaders continue to dominate, even though they deal for the most part with non-Jewish workers." [GLAZER/MOYNIHAN, p. 144-145] "In America and Europe," says Barry Rubin, "the left was so heavily Jewish as to be virtually a communal activity in itself, especially in the 1930's ... Marxist intellectuals in those years were heavily Jewish in composition and profoundly Jewish in their thinking ... [Its pre-eminent leaders] were all born into highly assimilated, wealthy families..." [RUBIN, B., p. 147] Reflecting on the collapse of the leftist movement in America, Harold Cruse, an African-American intellectual and former communist, complained that
"The Jews could not [Americanize Marxism] with the nationalist-
aggressiveness emerging out of East Side ghettoes to demonstrate
through Marxism their intellectual superiority over the Anglo-Saxon
goyim. The Jews failed to make Marxism applicable to anything in
America but their own national-group ambition or individual self-
election." [LIEBMAN, A., p. 529]
In 1982 a Jewish author noted a similar quote by a Gentile communist activist from Wisconsin:
"It became increasingly apparent to most participants [at a communist
youth conference] that virtually all the speakers were Jewish New
Yorkers. Speakers with thick New York accents would identify
themselves as 'the delegate from the Lower East Side' or 'the comrade
from Brownsville.' Finally the national leadership called a recess to
discuss what was becoming an embarassment. How could a
supposedly national student organization be so totally dominated by
New York Jews? ... The convention was held in Wisconsin." [in MACDONALD, 1998, p. 72]

     "The problem arose," says Arthur Liebman,

"to the means to accomplish the objective of Americanizing what was an essentialy Jewish and European socialist movement ... [LIEBMAN, A., 1986, p. 340] ... The disporportionate presence of Jews and the foreign born generally in the socialist movement coupled with the relative absence of non-Jews and native Americans troubled many of its leaders, Jews and non-Jews alike. The Communist party, for example, in the 1920s was made up almost entirely of Jews and foreign born, most of whom were in foreign language federations. The Jews alone in the 1930s and 1940s accounted for approximately  40 to 50 percent of the membership of the Communist party." [LIEBMAN, A.,|
1986, p. 339]

Nathaniel Weyl notes that:

"Although Communist leaders were normally taciturn about the extent
to which Party membership was Jewish, Jack Stachel complained in
The Communist for April 1929 that in Los Angeles 'practically 90 per
cent of the membership is Jewish.' In 1945, John Williamson, another
national leader of the American Communist Party, observed that, while
a seventh of Party membership was concentrated in Brooklyn, it
was not the working-class districts, but in Brownsville, Williamsburg,
Coney Island and Bensonhurst, which he characterized 'as primarily
Jewish American communities.' In 1951, the same complaint about
Brooklyn was reiterated. A 1938 breakdown of Communist educational
directors on a district level reported that 17 out of 34 were Jewish and
only nine 'American' ... Based on scrutiny of surnames, Glazer concluded that all of the 'Rank and File' (Communist) teachers placed on trial by the Teachers Union in 1932 were Jewish." [WEYL., N., 1968, p. 118-119]

      The popular association of Jews with Communism," notes Peter Novick, "dated from the Bolshevik Revolution. Most of the 'alien agitators' deported from the United States during the Red Scare after World War I had been Jews." [NOVICK, P., 1999, p. 92] Major American twentieth century court trials included those of Charles Schenck, general secretary of the Socialist Party, who was arrested for sedition in 1919: "The case marked the first time the Supreme Court ruled on the extent to which the U.S. government may limit speech." [KNAPPMAN, E., 1995, p. 61, 60] Likewise, in 1927 the Supreme Court "upheld the conviction of Socialist Benjamin Gitlow under a New York state law for advocating criminal anarchy." [KNAPPMAN, E., 1995, p. 63]

      Peter Pulzer once noted that, in the German socialist ranks of the early 20th century, "Their [Jews'] disproportionately bourgeois origins and their tendency to derive their views from first principles rather than empirical experience, led them into a dominating position [in] the party's debates." [WEISBERGER, A., 1997, p. 93] Arthur Liebman notes the background to the Morris Hillquit's election to the American Socialist party chairmanship in 1932:

"Hilquit, in turn, brought the unmentionable to the center stage in an emotional speech, declaring, 'I apologize for having been born abroad, for being a Jew, and living in New York City.' Hilquit's oblique reference to anti-Semitism assured him of victory. As Thomas[Hilquit's opponent for the chairmanship] later commented, 'Once the anti-Semitic issue was raised, even though unjustly, I was inclined to think it best that Hillquit won.' The Socialist party did not want to risk being labeled anti-Semitic." [LIEBMAN, A., 1986, p. 341]
Some estimates suggest that 60% of the leadership for the 60s-era radical SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) were Jews (well-known radicals included Kathy Boudin, Bettina Aptheker, among many others). [PRAGER, p. 61] From 1960 to 1970, five of the nine changing presidents of the organization were Jewish males (Al Haber, Todd Gitlin, and the last three for the decade: Mike Spiegel, Mike Klonsky, and Mark Rudd). [SALE, K., 1973, p. 663]"Perhaps fully 50 percent of the revolutionary Students for a Democratic Society," says Milton Plesur, "and as many as 50 to 75 percent of those in campus radical activities in the late 1960s were Jewish." [PLESUR, M., 1982, p. 137] As Stanley Rothman and S. Robert Lichter note:

"The early SDS was heavily Jewish in both its leadership and its activist cadres. Key SDS leaders included Richard Flacks, who played an important role in its formation and growth, as well as Al Haber, Robb Ross, Steve Max, Mike Spiegel, Mike Klonsky, Todd Gitlin, Mark Rudd, and others. Indeed, for the first few years, SDS was largely funded by the League for Industrial Democracy, a heavily Jewish socialist (but anti-communist) organization.
SDS's early successes were at elite universities containing substantial numbers of Jewish students and sympathetic Jewish faculty, including the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Brandeis, Oberlin, and the University of California. At Berkeley SDS leaders were not unaware of their roots. As Robb Ross put it, describing the situation at the Unversity of Wisconsin in the early 1960s, '... my impression is that the left at Madison is not just a new left, but a revival of the old ... with all the problems that entails. I am struck by the lack of Wisconsin-born people [in the Madison-area left] and the massive preponderance of New York Jews. The situation at the University of Minnesota is similar' ... [Researcher] Berns and his associates found that 83 percent of a small radical activist sample studied at the University of California in the early 1970s were of Jewish background." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 61]

     Susan Stern was among those to turn to the violent Weatherman underground organization. Ted Gold, another Weatherman member, died when a bomb he was making exploded in his hands. [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 61] In an iconic 1970 incident, three of the four students shot and killed by National Guardsmen at a famous Kent State University demonstration were Jewish. [BYARD, K., 5-5-00]

     A study by Joseph Adelson at the University of Michigan, one of the American hotbeds of 1960s-era activism, suggested that 90% of those defined as politically "radical students" at that school were Jews. [PRAGER, p. 61, 66] And, "when, for instance, the Queens College SDS held a sit-in at an induction center several years ago," wrote Gabriel Ende, "they chose to sing Christmas carols to dramatize their activity, although the chairman and almost all of the members were Jewish." [ENDE, G., 1971, p. 61]

    Ronald Radosh notes that

"In elite institutions like the University of Chicago, a large 63 percent of student  radicals were Jewish; Tom Hayden may have been the most famous name in  the University of Michigan SDS, but '90 percent of the student left [in that school] came from jewish backgrounds;' and nationally, 60 percent of SDS members were Jewish. As my once-friend Paul Breines wrote about my own alma mater the University of Wisconsin, 'the real yeast in the whole scene had been
the New York Jewish students in Wisconsin' ... As late as 1946, one-third of America's Jews held a favorable view of the Soviet Union." [RADOSH, R., 6-5-01]

     Decades earlier, note Rothman and Lichter:

"The American Student Union, the most prominent radical student group during the 1930s, was heavily concentrated in New York colleges and universities with large Jewish enrollments. And on other campuses,
such as the University of Illinois, substantial portions of its limited membership were students of Jewish background from New York City." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 101]

In communist organizations that supposedly idealized a classless society for all people, it inevitably grated with enduring Jewish self-perception: Jews often tended to configure as a special caste of controllers of -- not a religious, but now -- a secular messianism. As Jeff Schatz notes about pre-World War II Poland: "Despite the fact that [communist] party authorities consciously strove to promote classically proletarian and ethnically Polish members to the cadres of leaders and functionaries, Jewish communists formed 54 percent of the field leadership of the KPP [Polish Communist Party] in 1935. Moreover, Jews constituted a total of 75 percent of the party's technica, the apparatus for production and distribution of propaganda material. Finally, communists of Jewish origin occupied most of the seats of the Central Committee of the of the KPPP [Communists Workers Party of Poland] and the KPP." [SCHATZ, p. 97] Jews were at this time 10% of the Polish population.
In Russia, notes Shmuel Ettinger,
"when the Russian Social Democratic Party split into two factions --
Bolsheviks and Mensheviks -- both factions had many Jews in
their leaderships (such as Boris Axelrod, Yuly Martov, Lev Trotsky,
Grigory Zinoviev, and Lev Kamenov) and among their most active
party members. Many Jews also played a part in the foundations and
leadership of the party ... For example, Mikhail Gots was one of the
party's main thereoticians and Grigory Gershuni was the leader of
its fighting organization, which carried out terrorist acts against the
Tsarist regime." [ETTINGER, p. 9]
Earlier in Russia, notes Leon Schapiro, "a particularly important part was played by [Jewish revolutionary Aaron] Zundelovich, who in 1872 had formed a revolutionary circle mainly among students at the state-sponsored rabbinical school, at Vilna." [SCHAPIRO, L., 1961, p. 153]
Also, notes Albert Lindemann, "it seems beyond serious debate that in the first twenty years of the Bolshevik Party the top ten to twenty leaders included close to a majority of Jews. Of the seven 'major figures' listed in The Makers of the Russian Revolution, four are of Jewish origin." [LINDEMANN, p. 429-430] Among the most important Jewish communists were the aforementioned Trotsky (originally Lev Davidovich Bronstein) and Grigori Yevseyevich Zinoviev ("Lenin's closest associate in the war years"). Lev Borisovich Kamenev (Rosenfeld) headed the party newspaper, Pravda. Adolf Yoffe was head of the Revolutionary Military Committee of the Petrograd Bolshevik Party in 1917-18. Moisei Solomonovich, head of the secret police in Petrograd, was known by some as the epitome of "Jewish terror against the Russian people." [LINDEMANN, p. 431]

      In Hungary, notes Jewish scholar Howard Sachar, "for 135 days [in 1919], Hungary was ruled by a Communist dictatorship. Its party boss, Bela Kun, was a Jew. So were 31 of the 49 commissars in Kun's regime." [SACHAR, H., 1985, p. 339]
During that time, note Jewish scholars Stanley Rothman and S. Robert Lichter, Jews also represented

"most managers of the forty-eight People's Commissars in his revolutionary government. Most managers of the new state farms were Jewish, as were the bureau chiefs of the Central Administration and the leading olice officers. Overall, of 202 high officials in the Kun government, 161 were Jewish. Jews remained active in the Communist party during the Horthy regime of 1920-44, dominating its leadership. Again, most were from established, midle-class (or, at worst, lower-middle-class) backgrounds. Hardly any were proletarians or peasants. Most of the Hungarian Jewish community was massacred during World War II ... Nonetheless, the leading cadres of the Communist party in  the postwar period were Jews, who completely dominated the regime until  1952-53 ... The wags of Budapest explained the presence of a lone gentile in the party leadership on the grounds that a 'goy' was  needed to turn on the lights on Saturday." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 89]

      "In Lithuania," add Rothman and Lichter,

"about 54 percent of the [Communist] party cadres were Jewish. Salonika Jewry played a major role in the foundation of Greek Communist party and remained prominent until the early 1940s. Similar patterns prevailed in Rumania and Czechoslovakia. Jews played quite prominent roles in the top and second echelon leadership of the communist regimes in all of these countries in the immediate postwar period. Theywere often associated with Stalinist policies and were strongly represented in the secret police. In Poland, for example, three of the five members of the original Politburo were Jewish. A fourth, Wladyslaw Gomulka, was married to a woman of Jewish background. In both Rumania and Czechoslovakia, at least two of the four key figures in the Communist party were of Jewish background." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 90]

In Canada, in the 1940s, the Jewish head of the Communist Party in Montreal, Harry Binder, estimated that 70% of the Communist Party membership in his city were Jewish. In Toronto, from a Jewish population of 50,000, about 30% of the formal members of the local Communist community were believed to be Jews, not including those who had looser ties to the organization. [PARIS, E., 1980, p. 145]
David Biale notes Jewish pre-eminence among the communists of South Africa:
"The fact that they were outsiders to the main elements of white South
African society -- British and Afrikaner -- undoubtedly made them more
likely to rebel against the existing order. It was the explosive combination of Communist ideology as a kind of substitute for religion and the Jews' marginal status that probably turned these Jews into such a prevalent presence on the South African left." [BIALE, D., MARCH/APRIL 2000, p. 63-64]

      Jews of Polish background played an important role in the founding of the Cuban communist party," note Rothman and Lichter, "and there are scattered indications of their significance in left-wing parties and groups in other Latin American countries. Jews were also prominent in the formation of Communist parties in various North African countries." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 90-91]
Even in 1930's pre-Nazi Germany, the Communist Party's top two leaders -- Rosa Luxemberg and Paul Levi -- were Jewish. (Hannah Arendt notes that Luxemberg was a member of a "Polish-Jewish 'peer group,'" which was a "carefully hidden attachment to the Polish party which sprang from it.") [ARENDT, 1968, p. 40] Earlier, in the wake of World War I, another Jewish radical, Kurt Eisner, proclaimed a socialist republic in Bavaria. Upon his assassination, Eisner's government was replaced by another socialist one -- that of president Ernst Toller (also Jewish). Erich Muehsam and Gustav Landauer were other Jews in high positions in the government. [PAYNE, p. 124-125] Next came a Communist coup to oust the socialist regime. As John Cornwell describes it, "After a week or two of outlandish misrule, on April 12 [1919] a reign of terror ensued under the red revolutionary trio of Max Levien, Eugen Levine, and Tonja Axelrod [also all Jewish] to hasten the dictatorship of the proletariat. The new regime kidnapped 'middle-class' hostages, throwing them into Stadeheim Prison. They shut down schools, imposed censorship, and requisitioned peoples' homes and possessions." [CORNWELL, p. 74] In Austria, in 1920, repeating the theme, "the socialist government was led by Friedrich Adler, Otto Bauer, Karl Seitz, Julius Deutsch and Hugo Breitner." [GROLLMAN, E., 1965, p. 117] "The Austrian Social Democrat party was founded by Victor Adler, a deracinated Jew from a well-known Prague Jewish family, and the party paper was edited by Friedrich Austerlitz, a Moravian Jew. Other prominent Jews in the party leadership included Wilhelm Ellenbogen, Otto Bauer, Robert Dannenberg, and Max Adler." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 88]
'The list of leading socialists [in Germany] of Jewish origin is long and illustrious," adds Adam Weisberger, "-- Eduard Bernstein, Rosa Luxemberg, Gustav Landauer, Kurt Eisner, Paul Singer, Hugo Haase -- to mention some of the most prominent among them." [WEISBERG, A., 1997, p. 2]
As George Mosse notes:
"Jews were highly visible in many of the postwar [World War I]
revolutions, not only in Bolshevik Russia but also in Budapest,
Munich, and Berlin. During the postwar crisis, belief in Jewish
conspiracies and subversive activity was not just a curious notion
held by professed haters of Jews; in 1918, even Winston Churchill
associated Jews with the Bolshevik conspiracy." [MOSSE, G., 1985, p. 68-69]

    For those who even know about such a past, Jewish historiography these days tends to assert that communist and socialist Jews, in Russia and everywhere else, did not have any interest in a Jewish identity. This position asserts that such Jewish communist involvement was an investment in a secular universalism that leaves behind the traditional Jewish collectivist identity. In explaining away why so many Jews were secret police terrorists under the communist regime in Eastern Europe [see above links], Jewish author Michael Checinski writes that
"They were, for better or worse, considered less susceptible to the
lures of 'Polish nationalism,' to which even impeccable Polish Communistswere not thought immune. It should be remembered that these Jews were of a particular type: there were few veteran Communists among them, as their victims would be former KPP members and other
left-wingers, and Moscow was taking no chances with sentimental
ties of comradeship cramping their style as guardians of political
'purity.' Many of them had not only sadistic inclinations but also
various grudges against their future victims, both Polish and Jewish.
Indeed, it is significant that there were no traces of 'Jewish solidarity' among the staff of the Tenth Department. On the contrary, they represented a distorted conception of 'internationalism,' which could be described as 'Jewish anti-Semitism.'" [CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 71-72]
This is a common Jewish apologetic tact today, to explain away the Jewish identities of so many communist terrorists by proclaiming that they had no connective identity with others in their work circles. Even here, Jewish consensus proclaims, even as Jews murdered others, Jews remain victims of anti-Semitism.

      But as Kevin MacDonald suggests, "surface declarations of a lack of Jewish identity may be highly misleading ... There is good evidence for widespread self-deception about Jewish identity among Jewish radicals ... [Bolshevism] was a government that aggressively attempted to destroy all vestiges of Christianity as a socially unifying force within the Soviet Union while at the same time it established a secular Jewish subculture." [MACDONALD, 1998, p. 60]

     Arthur Liebman notes this phenomenon in "the flood of Yiddish-speaking Jews" to America in the early years of the twentieth century:

"These new Jews were too large a constituency to be kept separate from the Socialist party for the length of time ncessary to accept the arguments of the sophisticated Marxist cosmopolitan Jews. If these masses of Jews who valued their Jewish identity and language would come to socialism through a speical Jewish organization, then the Socialists decided they would have it. The Jewish Socialist Federation was officially recognized by the Socialist party in 1912."
[LIEBMAN, A., 1986, p. 339]

As Jewish author John Sack notes about the many officials of Jewish origin in Poland after World War II who headed the repressive communist secret police system:
"I'd interviewed twenty-three Jews who'd been in the Office [of State
Security], and one, just one, had considered himself a communist in
1945. He and the others had gone to Jewish schools, studied the
Torah, had been bar-mitzvahed, sometimes wore payes ... By whose
definition weren't they Jews? Not by the Talmud's, certainly not by
the government of Israel's or the government of Nazi Germany's."
Melanie Kaye-Kantrowitz puts her Jewish identity in a socialist context this way:
"Out of nowhere pops a question, 'If you don't care about being
Jewish, how come all your friends are Jews?'
Vivian ... thinks about being Jewish on the toilet and in her
sleep, as well as every other moment of the day or night.
'I live in New York,' I snap, and we both burst out laughing.
Mentally I flip through my friends for a non-Jew. Nothing.
She shakes her head. 'You're such a Jew. How come you
don't know this about yourself?'
... My parents never thought about it either, it was who they
were. In Vilna they were Jews and socialists, and when they came
here they were still Jews and socialists. They lived among other
Jews. Everyone spoke Jewish. What was there to think? It was
like air, they breathed it. There was Jewish everything. My parents
would argue who you could trust less, communists or Democrats,
anarchists they never worried about. All Jewish. Orthodox,
secular. Owners, bosses, workers. Doctors, teachers, salesclerks,
writers, dancers, peddlers, you name it. All Jewish. Movies. Gossip
columns. Like I said, you breathed it." [KAYE-KANTROWITZ,
1990, p. 188]
Jewish author Anne Roiphe, today an ardent supporter of Israel, addresses the same theme:
"I can say I was a Marxist before I was old enough to know history,
and afterward a liberal, a Leftist, a woman of the people with the people, but finally I must own to the hypocrisy. I see certain unwelcome
contradictions." [ROLPHE, 1981, p. 113]
Rolphe's first hypocrisy was that she was born to wealth: "I am the product of the [economic] wits of my grandfather." [ROLPHE, 1981, p. 113] And despite an identity as a Marxist, Leftist, liberal, or whatever else she thought she was, Rolphe inevitably was drawn back to "this odd mystical connection to the Jewish peoplehood, " [ROLPHE, 1981, p. 182] writing an entire volume about it (subtitled A Jewish Journey in Christian America). "I thought," she wrote, "that ... I had asserted my ego as separate from the forced march of Jewish history ... I had thought I had cut out the roots of the tree that was causing too much shade in my garden ... [but] the tree without roots had surprised me with its staying power." [ROIPHE, 1981, p. 180]
Jewish communist Sam Carr was released from a Canadian prison in 1951 for spying for Russia. "Ironically," notes Erna Paris, "given the fact that he 'wasn't much of a Jew,' he did become the leader of the Unified Jewish People's Order after 1960." [PARIS, E., p. 176] In Argentina, Jewish publisher Jacobo Timerman was imprisoned by the ruling military junta in 1977. It was pointed out to him by his right-wing interrogators that he was a member of a "registered affiliate organization of the Communist Party" in his youth. Timerman denied that he joined it because of any interest in communism, but, rather, for how it could serve his other ideological interests: "I belonged to it as an anti-Fascist, a Jew, and a Zionist." [TIMERMAN, J., 1981, p. 116]
"A number of Jewish socialists, particularly in the later stages of the [German] Wilhelhmine period," notes Adam Weisberger, "exhibited the phenomenon of returning to Judaism ... although admittedly often in secular or accentuated form. Joseph Bloch, for example, originally an ardent assimilationist and German nationalist, became perhaps the chief proponent of Zionism in the German socialist movement." [WEISBERGER, A., 1997, p. 98]
In 1961, Jewish author Daniel Aaron criticized the shallow attachment many in radical movements really had to their left-wing postures: "Some writers joined or broke from the [Communist] Movement because of their wives, or for careerist reasons, or because they read their own inner disturbances into the realities of social dislocation. To put it another way, the subject matter of politics ... was often the vehicle for non-political emotions and compulsions." [WALD, p. 14]
Sigmund Freud (although not a Marxist, his areligious work is often joined to Marxist theory) insisted that his psychological speculations applied to all people and tried to dismiss any evidence of his own special Jewish particularism. But he was always conflicted about it. As he once wrote about his connection to Jewish identity, "When I felt an inclination to [Jewish] national enthusiasm I strove to suppress it as being harmful and wrong, alarmed by the warning examples of the people among whom we Jews live. But plenty of other things remained to make the attraction of Jewry and Jews irresistible -- many obscure emotional forces, which were the more powerful the less they could be expressed in words, as well as a clear consciousness of inner identity, the safe privacy of a common mental connection." [ROIPHE, 1981, p. 180] (The clique that runs, and enforces, the psychoanalytic world, as we shall see later, remains overwhelmingly Jewish).
Jewish messianic elitism in leftist "universalist" circles endures to this day. In 1992, Michael Lerner, prominent editor of the left-wing Jewish journal Tikkun, suggested remedies for curing anti-Semitism in leftist organizations. The cure? "Put[ting] self-affirming Jews in positions of leadership in your organizations" [LERNER, Socialism, p. 115] and indoctrination sessions to sensitize non-Jews to Jewish needs (Lerner's term is: "internal education programs.")
Erna Paris notes the history of Jewish communism in Canada:
"Although the Jewish left claimed to be dedicated to perfect equality,
it also gave full-blown expression to the strong velvet-gloved, ancient,
patriarchal traditions of Judaism. If the ancestral prophets like Amos
were the Fathers of Israel, so the men of UJPO [United Jewish
People's Order: a 'Jewish' branch of communism] and the school of
the Jewish labour movement were the 'Fathers' of the women and
children in the movement. Without question, they were the new
Hebrew prophets of a better world." [PARIS, E., p. 152]
As Adam Weisberger notes this Jewish identity root in the profound historical influence of Jews in revolutionary communist and socialist movements that aimed to destroy the existing social order:
"A messianic idea, derived from traditional Judaism, persisted through the process of secularization and entered into the groundwork of socialism ... Jewish socialists, even when they were estranged from
Judaism and possessed little or no formal Jewish education, remained
an essential part of the mission of those Jews who believed they had broken with tradition." [WEISBERGER, A., 1997, p. 112]

     "After being nurtured by a culture that saw itself superior by virtue of its special relationship with God," note Jewish authors Stanley Rothman and S. Robert Lichter,

"many Jews must have experienced their contact with modern Europe
[with the birth of the Enlightenment] as traumatic. It was difficult to
 think Jewish life superior to the achievements of European civilization
once the protective mantle of the shtetl was no longer present. What
better way to reestablish claims to superiority than by adopting the
 most 'advanced' social position of the larger society and viewing
 this adoption as a reflection of Jewish heritage? Thus many radical
Jewish intellectuals were able to continue to assert Jewish
superiority, even as they denied their Jewishness." [ROTHMAN/
LICHTER, 1982, p. 121]

     Arnold Eisen, in a discussion of Leslie Fiedler (who started out as a socialist) and other well-known Jewish American "intellectuals," notes the transformative essence of Jewish identity from traditional Judaism to modern political movements: "Here the entire language of chosenness -- suffering, witness, mission, reciprocity, exclusivity, covenant, and even repudiation of Christianity and idol worship! -- has been appropriated and hollowed out in order to endow the Jewish intellectual with the role of prophet to his own community and the world." [EISEN, p. 136] Salo Baron goes back further in time, but underscores the same Jewish identity foundation, which can, however incongruously, simultaneously straddle both "universalistic" communist movements and "particularist" Zionism:
"Under one guise or another, even the antireligious movements in
19th century Judaism were unable to cast off their messianic yearnings for an ultimate redemption of their people, or of mankind at large. The growing secularization of modern Jewry made the transition from religious messianism to political Zionism appear as but another link
in that long chain of evolution." [BARON, 1964, p. 172]
David Horowitz recalls what it was like growing up in a New York City household with his communist parents, an environment still founded upon the Jewish religious myths of redemption:
"In the radical romance of our political lives, the world was said
to have begun in innocence, but to have fallen afterwards under
an evil spell, afflicting the lives of all with great suffering and
injustice. According to our myth, a happy ending beckoned,
however. Through the efforts of progressives like us, the spell
would one day be lifted, and mankind would be freed from its
trials." [HOROWITZ, D., 1999, p. 284]
Even the founder of Hadassah (the women's Zionist organization), Henrietta Szold, once wrote that "the world has not progressed beyond the need of Jewish instruction, but the Jew can be witness and a missionary only if he is permitted to interpret the lessons of Judaism as his peculiar nature and his peculiar discipline enable him to interpret them." [GAL, A., 1986, p. 371] How Zionism, the modern secular expression of traditional Jewish ethnocentrism, is supposed to "instruct the world that has not progressed beyond the need of Jewish instruction" is never explained. [Note Zionism's implicit racism and oppressive policies against non-Jews in the later chapter about Israel].
With the erosion of the New Left in America in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and Israel's 1967 victory in its war with surrounding Arab states, distinctly Judeo-centric political configurations arose out of the Jewish universalistic left-wing community that, as Mordecai Chertoff notes, "affirm[ed] Zionism ... and Judaism ... as socialists and radicals." [CHERTOFF, p. 192] Such organizations included the Jewish Student Movement, the Jewish Action Committee, Kadimah, the Jewish Student Union, the Maccabees, American Students for Israel, the World Union of Jewish Students, Na'aseh, Jews for Urban Justice, the New Jewish Committee, the Jewish Liberation Project, the Youth Commitee for Peace and Democracy in the Middle East, and the Committee for Social Justice in the Middle East. Such organizations produced between 20 and 40 periodicals with a combined circulation of over 300,000. [GLAZER, NEW p. 192-193]
"The extreme radical groups of the New Left came out officially in favor of the Arabs," notes James Yaffe, "but it generally conceded that there was much opposition from Jews in those groups. 'Jewish kids in the Movement,' one of them told me, 'have a double standard on Israel. A non-Jewish leftist is much more likely to condemn Israel than a Jewish leftist." [YAFFE, J., 1968, p. 193]
"There are still those [Jews] who are impressed," wrote Nathan Glazer in 1971, "by what seems to be the New Left concern for all of mankind, but more and more ... are discovering ... that there is a limit to the number of trumpets one can respond. [Jews] are responding, in greater numbers to their own." [GLAZER, p. 196] "How many times," complained anti-Vietnam War activist Gabriel Ende in the same year, "have committed Jews joined with others in Vietnam and student power rallies, only to have their erstwhile companions stab them in the back with boorish anti-Israel remarks on the morrow?" [ENDE, G., 1971, p. 59]

    Jewish international economic power toward expressly Jewish political ends in a war could even be asserted in Asia. At the turn of the twentieth century, American Jews who were concerned about a perceived Russian mistreatment of its Jewish citizens included Jacob Schiff, a senior partner in the American banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb, and Co. He believed that "the only hope for Russian Jews seemed to lay in the possibility that the Russo-Japanese War would lead to upheaval in Russia and constitutional government there." [BEST, G., 1972, p. 315] Toward this end, Schiff helped Japan raise $180 million, nearly one-fourth of the total Japanese expenditure in its war with Russia. Schiff, the wealthy capitalist, even funded socialist indoctrination programs for Russian prisoners of war by the Japanese, in the hope that this might aid in the Tsar's downfall. [LINDEMANN, p. 170] The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia claims that "in his later years [Schiff] recognized that he had innocently aided in the creation of a menace in the shape of Japanese imperialism." [UJE, v. 9, p. 400]
At the same time, since 1890, Jewish-American financiers -- led by Jacob Schiff, Isaac Seligman, and Adolph Lewisohn -- had vigorously lobbied the powerful international Jewish banking community as a collective entity to reject Russia's own searches for loans. Ultimately defeated by Japan and suffering great indemnity demands, Tsarist Russia faced a largely successful international economic lockout by Jewish money lenders (the Russian government ultimately collapsed to the communist revolution, a situation international Jewry hoped to be better for Russian Jews). "A great nation," reported the Jewish Chronicle with satisfaction about the teetering Tsarist state, "was now going from one Jewish banker to the other, vainly appealing for financial help." [ARONSFELD, p. 103]
Simon Wolf, Chairman of the Board of Delegates of the United American Hebrew Congregation, wrote that
"Russia at this juncture needs two important elements to inspire its future prosperity and happiness: money and friends ... The Jews of the world control much of the first ... There is no disguising the fact that in the United States especially the Jews form an important factor in the
formation of public opinion and in the control of the finances...
[ARONSFELD, p. 100]
The following ultimatum to the huge country of Russia, and a threat to those who broke Jewish ranks to do business with it, was announced by a group of Jewish American businessmen wielding their own foreign policy, self-described as the "Hebrew alliance:"
"First, until equal civil and religious rights are given the Jews of Russia,
no money will be loaned the Russian government by any American
Second, the Rothschilds [the worlds greatest and far-reaching banking
firm, based in Europe] are united with the American Jewish bankers in
this agreement and will use all their enormous prestige and power to
assist in carrying out the threat.
Third, no financial concern will be allowed to loan Russia money, under
pain of the displeasure and financial punishment that such a
combination of resources of the Hebrew alliance could so readily
dispense." [ARONSFELD, p. 100]
Jewish economic collusion against Russia, notes Edwin Black, "was widely criticized for the stubborn continuation of their boycott even as it threatened the Allies' [World War I] war effort. But the boycott remained in effect until the monarchy was toppled in 1917." [BLACK, p. 31] Even within Russia itself, a Jewish "adventurous millionaire," Parvus (aka Israel Lazarevitch Gelfand, or also anglicized as Helphand), was a sponsor of V. I. Lenin. [SINGER, N., p. 2] In this historical context -- the "conspiracy" of international Jewish financiers unifying to bring Tsarist Russia to collapse -- the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia notes that "the canard of the Jewish conspiracy to attain political world domination originated at the time when the Tsarist regime was threatened with revolution." [UJE, v. 3, p. 1] The most famous anti-Semitic volume of all time, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which claimed to evidence a Jewish conspiracy to dominate the world, was created -- and published -- in Russia at this time.

Jewish Prominence and Power in Soviet Communism  

With the eventual fall of Tsarist rule, the influence of Jews in the rise of Russian communism was profound. (After all, as Louis Rapoport notes, "[Karl] Marx, Ferdinand Lassalle, and Eduard Bernstein [were] men of Jewish origin who laid the foundations of communism and socialism.") [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 15] During the 1917 revolution, two communist factions, the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks vied for power. Leading up to the revolution, eight of the seventeen Menshevik Party central committee members were Jewish. The "entire Menshevik Party which included many Jewish members ... was politically linked with the Jewish Labor Bund [a party largely championing Jewish nationalism]." [LEVIN, N., 1988, p. 13] The head of the Menshevik Party was also Jewish, Raphael Abramovich. [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 31]
The rival Bolshevik revolutionary faction, however, prevailed in the overthrow of the tsarist government, replacing it with a communist government headed by V. I. Lenin. (A Jew, Boris Zbarsky, even was the one who embalmed Lenin's corpse for permanent display in the Kremlin). [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 95] Lenin had a Jewish grandfather, Alexander Dmitrievich Blank, on his mother's side. Russian author Dmitri Volkogonov's 1994 biography of Lenin notes that

"In [Lenin's sister's] letter to Stalin [after Lenin's death], Anna wrote: 'It's probably no secret for you that the research on our grandfather shows that he came from a poor Jewish family, that he was, as his baptismal certificate says, the son of 'Zhitomir meschanin Moishe Blank.' She went on to suggest  that 'this fact could serve to help combat anti-semitism.' Paradoxically for a Marxist who believed in the primacy of environmental over inherited factors, she also asserted the dubious proposition that Lenin's Jewish origins 'are further confirmation of the exceptional abilities of the Semitic tribe, [confirmation] always shared by Ilyich [Lenin] .... Ilyich always valued Jews highly.' Anna's claim explains, for instance, why Lenin frequently recommended giving foreigners, especially Jews, intellectually demanding tasks, and leaving the elementary work to the 'Russian fools.'" [VOLKOGONOV, D., 1994, p. 8-9]

     Lenin also once told Maxim Gorky that "the clever Russian is almost always a Jew or has Jewish blood in him." [VOLKOGONOV, D., 1994, p. 112]

      At the time of the revolution, the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Jacob Sverdlov, was Jewish. [WEYL, 1968, p. 197] As the new ruling Bolshevik clique took shape, three of the six members of the original ruling Politburo were also Jewish. Two of them, Lev Kamenev (Rosenfeld) and Grigori Zinoviev (Apfelbaum), joined with Stalin to form the threesome that ruled Russia at leader V. I. Lenin's death. [GINSBERG, B., 1993, p. 30] (Zinoviev once remarked that "We must carry along with us ninety million out of the one hundred million Soviet Russian population. As for the rest, we have nothing to say to them. They must be annihilated.") [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 31] Zinoviev "and his wife Z. I. Lilina were close family friends of Lenin, and Zinoviev probably received more personal letters from Lenin than any other leader." Similarly, Lev Kamenev "received the most correspondence [from Lenin] ... He was much trusted by Lenin, even on personal matters, for example on Lenin's relationship with his mistress Inessa Armand at the time he and Lenin were sharing an apartment in Poland. Kamenev's knowledge of Lenin is important because he was the first editor, with Lenin's direct participation, of Lenin's collected works." [VOLKOGONOV, D., 1994, p. xxxv]

      Another Jew, Angelica Balabanova, formerly an associate of Mussolini in Italy, headed the first Communist Comintern. Karl Radek (Sobelsohn) was "one of the leading agents of the Communist International ... The short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic was led by Bela Kun (a variant of Cohen) and the organizer of the Workers' and Soldiers' Soviets of the even more ephemeral Bavarian Soviet Republic was Eugen Levine." [WEYL, p. 197]  "Eugen Levine and Max Levien, distinctly un-Bavarian names," notes Alex de Jonge, "proclaimed a Communist Soviet Republic." [DE JONGE, A., 1978, p. 53]
Howard Sachar notes more deeply the case of Hungary where
"a free election took place in November 1945, and the communists won only 8 percent of the vote ... With the intimidating force of the Red
Army behind them, the Communists turned their efforts in the next
year to infiltration ... Their Soviet-trained leadership included a large
majority of Jews. Although many of the commissars from the Bela
Kun era in 1919 had been killed, a number of them survived in Soviet
exile. These were the men who returned now in the wake of the Red
Army. Their spokesman was Matyas Rakosis ... He returned
at the head of a quintet of fellow Jews that included Erno Gero, who
would become the communist government's economic overlord;
Mihaly Farka, its military and defense chieftain; Jozeph Revai, its
cultural 'pope'; and most importantly, Gabor Peter, who would be
named head of the dreaded security police." [SACHAR, H., 1985,
p. 344]
Jewish pre-eminence in the new Russian regime was throughout the communist system. As Zvi Gitelman notes:'
"The idea that the Bolshevik regime was a Jewish one gained
popularity because of the relatively large numbers of Jews who
in 1917 suddenly rushed into governmental posts from which
they had been barred under the tsars. So striking was the
prominence of Jews in high places that when it was proposed
that a Jewish ticket be put forth in the elections to the Constituent
Assembly, Maxim Vinaver commented, 'Why do Jews need a
separate ticket? Whichever party wins, we will still be the
winners.'" [GITELMAN, Z., 1972, p. 114]
In the struggle for power in Russia, notes Nathaniel Weyl, "the prominence of Jews in the leadership of the Bolshevik Party was no greater than their prominence in the leadership of other, less totalitarian parties." Prominent Jews in rival socialist factions included Julius Martov (Tsederbaum), Raphael Abramovitch, and I. N. Steinberg. Boris Savinkov, also Jewish, was the "legendary head of the Terrorist Brigade of the Socialist Revolutionary Party." Aaron Baron and Lev Chorny were well-known Anarchists. [WEYL, 1968, p. 199-200] Building to the Russian revolution era, prominent Jewish revolutionaries also included Grigory Abramovich Perets and Nikolay Utin. One of the founders (in 1876) of the "Land and Liberty" revolutionary party was Mark Natanson. "Another Jew," notes Leon Schapiro, "Aaron Zundelevich, played an important part on its executive committee. There were Jewish propagandists, Jewish organisers, Jewish terrorists ... It is impossible to doubt the importance of the Jewish contribution to the less spectacular business of organisation and staff-work. It was the Jews, with their long experience of exploiting conditions on Russia's western frontier which adjoined the Pale for smuggling and the like, who organised the illegal transport of literature, planned escapes and illegal crossings, and generally kept the wheels of the whole organisation running." [SCHAPIRO, L., 1961, p. 152] One of the Land and Liberty party's later branches, the "Black Repartition" group, "soon became the cradle of the Marxist movement. Jewish revolutionaries participated in all stages and in all aspects of this movement." [SCHAPIRO, L., 1961, p. 149-151]
"The abundance of Jewish names in the higher and middle levels of power (in the [Bolshevik] Party and state apparat, in the military, ministry, etc.) is indisputable," says apologist Jewish author Arkady Vaksberg, "... For anti-Semites now, this is an odious and outrageous fact; from the point of view of normal people not blinded by chauvinist hatred, it is meaningless." [VAKSBERG, p. 22] "Among the second-string leaders of the Soviet," observed Nathaniel Weyl, "were Gregory Sokolnikov (Brilliant), Solomon Lozovsky, who would head the Red International of Labor Unions, and Moses Uritsky, chief of the Petrograd Cheka and number two man in the Soviet secret police."[WEYL, 1968, p. 198]
In 1923, notes Isaac Deutscher, "a triumvirate, composed of Stalin, Zinoviev, and Kamenev, formed itself within the Politbureau ... Between them, the three men virtually controlled the whole [Communist] party and, through it, the Government ... Zinoviev was, in addition, the President of the Communist International." [DEUTSCHER, p. 255] Amidst intrigue and power struggles within the communist movement, however, by 1927 Kamenev and Zinoviev "at last threw in their lot with Trotsky." [DEUTSCHER, p. 307] Trotsky, an enemy of Stalin, was "the founder and builder of the Red Army," [DEUTSCHER, p. 192] and once the "number two man next to Lenin. " [NEW ENCYC BRITTANICA, p. 945] He was also Jewish, born Lev Davidovich Bronstein. Trotsky, Zinoviev, and Kamenev, notes Arkady Vaksberg, "alone formed the 'leadership nucleus' and had every reason to expect to inherit the mantle of leadership from Lenin. The man closest to the 'troika' (Trotsky-Zinoviev-Kamenev) after [Yakov] Sverdlov's death was Grigori Sokolnikov." [VAKSBERG, p. 19] All five of these men poised to rule Russia were Jewish. Kamenev once told Trotsky (his brother-in-law) [WALSH, p. 440] that "It will be enough for you and Zinoviev to appear together on the platform in order to reconquer the whole party." [DEUTSCHER, p. 308] It didn't work out that way. Stalin proved to be a more ruthless and/or shrewd leader in the struggle for power.
Nonetheless, Jews were very well represented in the Soviet system under Stalin. As Isaac Deutscher notes,
"Jews were quite prominent in [Stalin's] entourage, though far less
so than they had been in Lenin's. [Max] Litvinov stood for over a decade at the head of the Soviet diplomatic service; Kagonovich was to
the end Stalin's factotum; Mekhlis was the chief political Commissar
of the army; and Zaslavsky and Ehrenburg were the most popular
of Stalin's sycophants. Yet he was not averse from playing on
anti-Jewish emotions when this suited his convenience. During
the struggle of against the inner-party oppositions his agents made
the most of the circumstance that Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev,
and Radek were of Jewish origin." [DEUTSCHER, p. 605]
"Lev Mekhlis," notes Louis Rapoport,
"would become Stalin's secretary and one of the most despised
men in Soviet history ... Immediately after the Revolution, many
Jews were euphoric over their high representation in the new
government. Lenin's first Politburo was dominated by men of
Jewish origins ... Under Lenin, Jews became involved in all aspects
of the Revolution, including its dirtiest work. Despite the      Communists' vow to eradicate anti-Semitism, it spread rapidly after      the Revolution -- partly because of the prominence of so many Jews      in the Soviet administration, as well as in the traumatic, inhuman      Sovietization drives that followed." [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 30]
The Soviet Union's leading communist newspaper was Pravda. It's "leading staff members," Yakov Khavinson and David Zaslavsky, were Jewish, as were the Soviet Unions ambassadors to the U.S., Maxim Litvinov and Ivan Maisky, who were recalled in 1943. [VAKSBERG, p. 260, 139]
In 1994, Russian-born (and raised) Jewish author Arkady Vaksberg wrote a book entitled Stalin Against the Jews. Its fundamental thesis is that Stalin was a fanatical anti-Semite. (Louis Rapoport's Stalin's War Against the Jews reflects the same theme). The fact that many Jews (including millions of others) died under his direction is beyond question. And Stalin's actions in later life reflect his suspicions of the loyalty of many in the Jewish community. But the fact that Stalin was nonetheless surrounded by Jews everywhere in positions of high power (Lazar Kaganovich, Pyatnitsky, Fillip Goloschekin "and many others who were made part of the ruling circle") [VAKSBERG, p. 20] is described by Vaksberg as "camoflauge" for the Soviet leader's hatred of Jews. [VAKSBERG, p. 27] Yet Vaksberg's own evidence to portray the Russian Jewish community as solely victims consistently deflates the premise of Stalin's enduring anti-Semitism.Vaksberg assails Stalin as a singularly rabid, irrational Jew-hater even while stating that "the people who surrounded Stalin and who had rendered him service in the twenties and thirties were mostly Jews" [VAKSBERG, p. 35] and conceding that Jews especially close to Stalin like Emelyan Yaroslavky (Mines Gubelman), Moisey Gubelman, Lev Mekhlis ("Stalin's right hand man"), [VAKSBERG, p. 23] Lazar Kaganovich and Isaac Mintz all survived Stalin's declared "anti-Zionist" purges.
"Why did Stalin, as an anti-Semite," wonders Vaksberg, "have two Jewish secretaries -- Lev Mekhlis and Grigori Kanner?" [VAKSBERG, p. 27] Why too, we might add in turning Vaksberg's facts to different theses, whenever Stalin went on a vacation, did Lazar Kaganovich, a Jew, take over running the government? [VAKSBERG, p. 51] And why, we might add, if Stalin was so all-encompassingly hateful of Jews, did he entrust his life to a Jewish bodyguard, Matyas Rakoszy? [VAKSBERG, p. 40] (Another Jewish Stalin bodyguard, son of a rabbi, and "protege of Nikita Khruschev," was Alexander Contract, who started out in the NKVD -- later the KGB. Contract even saved the life of future Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin). [O'DWYER, T., 7-6-98] And if Stalin was singularly focused in his alleged hatred of Jews, why did his "personal corps of physicians" include "Drs. Weisbrod, Moshenberg, and Lev Gigorievich Levin?" [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 37] Even prominent non-Jewish Communist Party officials (and close associates of Stalin's social circle), President Mikhail Kalinin, Bukharin, Molotov, Voroshilov, Andreyev, Poskrebyshev, and Rykov, all had Jewish wives. Stalin's own daughter Svetlana Allilueva had an affair with Jewish screenwriter Alexei Kapler; she later married Grigory Morozov (Moroz), also Jewish. [VAKSBERG, p. 138; RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 208] The fact that Stalin reportedly did not approve of these men is routinely explained by Jewish scholars as anti-Semitism. Stalin's sister-in-law (eventually imprisoned) by his first wife was also Jewish. So was one of his daughters-in-law. And there is controversial testimony that Stalin even had a Jewish mistress, Rosa Kaganovich. [RAPAPORT, L., p. 46, 241] [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 94]
Over a hundred Jewish generals also served in Stalin's Soviet army, including the chief of the Soviet Air Force at the start of World War II, General Jacob Smushkevich. [GOLDBERG, M. H., 1976, p. 78]
"It seemed," says Louis Rapoport,
"there were Jews wherever [Stalin] looked. His loyal tin soldier, Marshal
Voroshilov, was devoted to his Jewish wife, Catherine. Marshal Bulganin was also happily married to a Jew, Nadezhda. Politburo member Andrei Andreyev, who fell from grace in 1950, was married to Dora Khazan, and Kaganovich the Jew was married to Maria, also one of the tribe. Malenkov, who was suspected of being a bit of a philo-Semite, had a Jewish son-in-law, as, it was said, did Khrushchev. The up-and-coming Leonid Brezhnev was said to have a Jewish wife." [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 208]
Stalin's alleged fanatical anti-Semitism had further curious twists. "Another non-Jew not only helped create Israel," notes M. Hersch Goldberg, "but saved it. Incredible as it may seem, that man was Joseph Stalin. The tale of Stalin's role in helping create and then insure the early survival of Israel has been little told; and on those occasions when it has been mentioned, there has been no satisfactory explanation for it." This includes the fact that in 1947 the Soviet Union publicly supported the creation of a Jewish state, and was the second country (after the U.S.) to recognize its establishment. Stalin also initially supported Israel in its war of independence against the Arabs and supported Israel with shipments of arms through Czecheslovakia. Even the Soviet delegate to the United Nations, also President of the Security Council, was of Jewish heritage -- Jacob Malik. [GOLDBERG, M. H., 1976, p. 220-224] It would seem that if Stalin was truly overwhelmed with feelings of irrational anti-Semitism, Jewish power within his own government had overwhelmed him.
From the start of his argument about Stalin's single-minded hatred of Jews, Arkady Vaksberg marks the early struggle for power between Stalin and Trotsky-Zinoviev-Kamenev-Sikolnikov: "All four men whom Stalin perceived as his rivals in the struggle for power were Jewish. Each of them, especially Trotsky, naturally had a large number of allies in higher eschelons of power who could influence the distribution of posts and positions and the political clout and popularity of candidates. There was a certain ethnic 'imbalance' here too." [VAKSBERG, p. 19]
As normal in Jewish scholarship (framing Jews as victims even as they act as oppressors), Vaksberg even makes the preposterous claim that the reason Jewish commanders ran 11 of the 12 major Gulag Archipelago concentration camps (including the director of them all, Matvei Berman, who also headed the slave labor project that built the Belomar-Baltic Canal) was that Stalin wanted to make Jews look bad, and foment anti-Semitism. "It could not," he insists, "have been sheer coincidence." [VAKSBERG, p. 98] Maybe not. But other possible reasons are too profoundly troubling for Vaksberg to consider.
Jews were also everywhere prominent in Soviet secret police organizations. "From the beginning," writes Benjamin Ginsberg, "the Soviet state relied upon military, police, and security services to sustain itself, and Jews were active in these agencies. ... Jews ... staff[ed] and direct[ed] the coercive instruments upon which the state relied to control its citizens." [GINSBERG, B., 1993, p. 30] Genrikh Yagoda, for instance, was the Soviet Chief of the Secret Police in the 1930s. A pharmacist, he specialized "in preparing poisons for his agents to use in liquidating Stalin's opponents." [GINSBERG, B., 1993, p. 31] "Yagoda was the man Stalin trusted most within the repressive aparat without which no totalitarian regime can exist," says Arkady Vaksberg, "The Soviet version of dictatorship and Stalin personally would not have survived without the 'faithful watchdogs of the revolution' and their 'punishing swords.'" [VAKSBERG, p. 36] Yagoda's brother-in-law, Leopold Averebakh was the "chief supervisor of Party purity in Soviet literature." [VAKSBERG, p. 35]

      (America has even had its own Jewish secret police kind of poisoner. Journalist Alexander Cockburn noted Sidney Gottleib as the "US Official Poisoner ... For more than two decades [he] managed the CIA's Technical Services Division ... With Gottleib's death, America has lost its prime poisoner. For many years, most notably in the 1950s and 1960s, Gottleib presided over the CIA's technical services division and supervised preparation of lethal poisons, experiments in mind control and administration of LSD and other psycho-active drugs to unwitting subjects.") [COCKBURN, A., GOTTLIEB]
"Working side by side with Yagoda," notes Arkady Vaksberg about a kindred Jewish government deputy, "was another professional chekist (a euphemism for professional executioner), Meer Trilissen ... The many actions undertaken by Trilissen's agents included blowing up the cathedral in Sofia with the Bulgarian tsar and his government inside." [VAKSBERG, p. 38]
Other Jews, Matvei Berman and Naftali Frenkel of the secret police, were instrumental in the creation of the slave labor system in which 200,000 workers died during one project alone, the White Sea-Baltic Canal. [GINSBERG, B., 1993, p. 31] "It was Frenkel," notes Louis Rapoport,
"who refined Berman's use of prisoners as slave labors ... Most of
the chief overseers of the Canal were Jews. Solzhenitsyn described
them as 'six hired murderers each of whom accounted for thirty
thousand lives: Firin - Berman - Frenkel - Kogan - Rappoport - Zhuk
... Thousands of Jewish revolutionaries helped to spearhead the
Terror machine with a messianic fervor. One of them, Matvei Berman,
had helped to institutionalize slave labor as early as 1922."      [RAPAPORT, L., 1990, p. 30, 44]
Likewise, Yakov Agranov, Karl Danker "and other representatives of the Jewish proletariat ... distinguished themselves with a talent for execution." [VAKSBERG, p. 39] Other prominent Jewish officials in the Soviet government included K.V. Pauler, Chief Operations Officer of the secret police in the 1930's, Lev Inzhir (Chief Accountant for the Gulag: Inzhir "the all-powerful clerk, was kept busy with figures on transit points, rail depots and harbors, human and other freight transfers, length of terms, mortality rates."), "top" Chekist Aron Soltz, [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 44, 45] M. I. Gay who headed a secret police organization that conducted mass arrests and executions during "The Great Terror" of the 1930s, and A.A. Slutsky and Boris Berman who were in charge of terrorist and espionage activities abroad in the 1930s.
Noting that "many of the prosecution witnesses and agent provocateurs against" Jewish enemies of the communist state were also Jewish, Louis Rapoport adds that
"Some of the main instruments of the Terror [against everyone] were
also of Jewish origin: M. I. Gay, who headed a special secret police
department; A. A. Slutsky and his deputies Boris Berman and
Shpiegelglas, who were in charge of terror and espionage abroad;
and NKVD operations chief Pauker. None of these mass executioners
survived [later purges against them] [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 49-50]
The man who headed the firing squad that executed the Russian royal family, Yakov Yurovsky, was also Jewish, as was the Bolshevik official who reported the deaths to Lenin, Yakov Sverdlov. [KRICHEVSKY, Behind, 1997, p. 8] Or, as Arkady Vaksberg puts it: "There is no getting around the fact that the first violins in the orchestra of death of the tsar and his family were four Jews -- Yakov Yurovsky, Shaia Goloshchekin, Lev Sosnovsky, and Pinkus Vainer (Pert Voikov). The concert master and conducter was Yakov Sverdlov." [VAKSBERG, p. 37]
As Zvi Gitelman notes about the Cheka, the early Soviet terrorist police organization:
"The high visibility of Jews in the Bolshevik regime was dramatized
by the large numbers of Jews in the Cheka ... From the Jewish point
of view it was no doubt the lure of immediate physical power which
attracted many Jewish youths ... Whatever the reasons, Jews were
heavily represented in the secret police ... Since the Cheka was the
most hated and feared organ of the Bolshevik government, anti-
Jewish feelings increased in direct proportion to Cheka terror."
[GITELMAN, 1972, p. 117]
Leon Schapiro remarks that "it is difficult to suggest a satisfactory reason for the prevalence of Jews in the Cheka ... Anyone who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of Cheka stood a very good chance of finding himself confronted with, and very possibly shot by, a Jewish investigator." [SCHAPIRO, L., 1961, p. 165]
"I doubt that there was another poet (or novelist or playwright or artist)," says Arkady Vaksberg, "who was surrounded by as many Chekists as [Vladimir] Mayakovsky. [Mayakowsky was the leading poet of the Russian revolution era.] And sadly, they were almost all Jewish." These included at least three Jewish generals in the secret terrorist organization: Yakov Agranov, Moisey Gorb, and Lev Elbert. [VAKSBERG, p. 45]
Another Jewish author, Richard Pipes, adds that
"The worst bestialities were committed by some of the provincial
Chekas -- which operated at a distance from the eyes of the
central organs and had no fear of being reported on by foreign
diplomats or journalists. There exists a detailed description of
the operations of the Kiev Cheka in 1919 by one of its staff,
I. Belerosov, a former law student and tsarist officer, which he
gave to general Denikin's investigators.
According to Belerosov, at first (fall and winter of 1918-1919)
the Kiev Cheka went on a 'continuous spree' of looting, extortion,
and rape. Three-quarters of the staff were Jews, many of them
riffraff incapable of any other work, cut off from the Jewish
community although careful to spare fellow Jews." [PIPES, R.,
1990, p. 823-824]
In later years, another Jew, Zakhar Ilyich Volovich, "was involved in many of the dirty circles of the NKVD [precursor to the KGB], crimes even today enveloped in dark secrecy." [VAKSBERG, p. 45-46] Among the many Jewish executives in the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD were Mosiey Boguslavsky, Yakov Veinshtok, Zakhlar Volovich, Mark Gai, Matvei Gerzon, Moisey Gorb, Ilya Grach, Yakov Deich, Grigory Rapoport, Abram Ratner, Abram Slutsky, David Sokolinsky, Solomon Stoibelman, Meer Trilesser, Semyon Firin, Vladimir Tsesarsky, Leonid Chertok, Isak Shapiro, Grigory Yakubovsky, "and many other NKVD workers of the same level and same origins." [VAKSBERG, p. 98] The non-Jewish head of the NKVD, Lavrenti Beria, had "many Jews in his close entourage ... [who were in] major positions in the NKVD." These included Generals Arkady Gertsovsky, Veniamin Gulst, Ilya Ilyushin-Edleman, Matvei Potashnik, Solomon Milshtein, Lev Novobratsky, Leonid Raikhman, and Naum Eitigen. Heads of NKVD "investigative groups" included Colonels Boris Rodos, Lev Shvartsman, Isaia Babich, Iosif Babich, Iosif Lorkish, and Mark Spekter. [VAKSBERG, p. 102]
Among these, Colonel Lev Shvartsman stands out for Arkady Vaksberg as "one of the most vicious KGB executioners ... He personally tortured Mikhail Koltsov, diplomats, major scientists, and cultural figures." [VAKSBERG, p. 223] Likewise, another Jew, Colonel Boris Rodos was a "sadist [who] ... at the Academy of Internal Affairs taught ... the methods of working over prisoners in their cells." [VAKSBERG, p. 211] "As a Jew," notes Yevgenia Albats in his book about the history of the KGB, "I'm interested in another question entirely: Why were there so many Jews among the NKVD-MGB investigators -- including many of the most terrible? It's a painful question for me, but I cannot evade it." [ALBATS, Y., 1994, p. 147]
"Such Bolshevik Jewish luminaries as Lev Kamenov, Grigori Zinoviev, and Yakov Sverdlov," says Ukrainian-American author Myron Kuropas, "helped Lenin come to power; and it was Jews like Maxim Litvinov, Lazar Kaganovich, and hundreds of lesser lights who were in the forefront of Stalin's rise to power. It was they who later helped Stalin engineer Ukraine's genocidal famine and the brutal Soviet takeover of Western Ukraine. When the USSR began to decline, writes [a former KGB officer married to a Jewish officer in the same force], 'the flower of this educated leadership and their children emigrated to Israel and the West.' I can't help but wonder how many of these criminals now reside in the United States." [KUROPAS, M., 8-14-94, p. 77]
Some estimates suggest that between a fourth and a fifth of the rural Ukrainian population perished by enforced starvation. [MOYNAHAN, p. 120] One of the dedicated Jewish communists was Lev Kopolev. "We were realizing historical necessity," he wrote,
"We were performing our revolutionary duty. We were obtaining grain
for the socialist fatherland ... I saw women and children with distended
bellies, turning blue, with vacant, lifeless eyes. And corpses -- corpses
in ragged sheepskin coats and cheap felt boots; corpses in peasant huts,
in the melting snow of old Vologda, under the bridges of Kharkov ... I
saw all this and did not got out of my mind or commit suicide ... I
believed [in the new Soviet order] because I wanted to believe."
[MOYNAHAN, p. 119]
In 1987, Stuart Kahan, an American relative of Russian communist strongman Lazar Kaganovich (originally named Moiseyevich; he is described by Kahan as the Soviet "Apparatus of Terror"), wrote a book about him. The author interviewed the elderly Kaganovich in Yiddish via his father, and concluded that his relative
"was, to put it mildly, a devil. That relative exuded evil, an evil
that put millions of people to death ... [KAHAN, S., p. 5] ... Although
the Church was left intact, its lands were seized [by the communist
movement]. Even prior religious teaching was forbidden in the schools.
Of course, word came down that it was the Jews who did this. After all,
wasn't the revolution prepared and fashioned by Jews? Both of Karl
Marx's grandfathers were rabbis, and Lenin's grandfather was also
Jewish. And wasn't Yarkov Sverdlov, the first chief of state, a Jew,
as was Trotsky himself? ... That Trotsky, unquestionably the most
outstanding man among the Bolsheviks, was a Jew did not seem an
insuperable obstacle in a party in which the percentage of Jews, 52
percent, was rather high compared to the percentage of Jews (1.8
percent) in the total population." [KAHAN, p. 80-81]
Kaganovich "eventually held more key posts in the power structure than anyone except Stalin ... He demolished the huge Church of Christ the Savior and replaced it with the Palace of the Soviets. As commissar of heavy industry during the war years, he chose his brother Mikhail as his deputy and controlled everything from the vast fuel and steel industries to chemicals and building materials." [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 43]
Jewish author Arkaday Vaksberg even calls yet another Jewish Soviet leader, Rozalia Zemlyachka (Zalkind), "a sadist and monster who would play a major role in the slaughter in the Crimea after the destruction of the last strongholds of the White Movement [anti-communists] there." [VAKSBERG, p. 23] Another Jew, Bela Hun, "spread bloody terror" with Semlyachka. [VAKSBERG, p. 41] Another government (and Jewish) terrorist, "the lawyer Moisey Uritsky ... was the scourge of Petrograd in 1918, terrorizing the citizenry as the local Cheka. He was killed by another Jew, Leonid Kanegisser." [VAKSBERG, p. 23] Another Jewish Soviet leader, Filipp Goloschchekin, "was one of the main organizers of the murder of the tsar's family in 1918 ... [He also] displayed boundless cruelty in the genocide of the Kazakhs when he became Party leader of Kazakhstan." [VAKSBERG, p. 17]
As even Winston Churchill once wrote about Jewish influence in the communist world:
"This [communist] movement among Jews is not new. From the days
of Spartacus-Weishaupt [Adam Weishaupt, the Bavarian founder in
1776 of one of the most famous conspiratorial groups, the Illuminati, in history], to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela
Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxemberg (Germany), and Emma Goldman
(United States), this worldwide conspiracy for the overthrow of
civilisation and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of
arrested development and envious malevolence, an impossible equality
has been steadily growing. It has been the mainspring of every subversive
movement during the nineteenth century." [PIPES, D., 1997, p. 139]
Jews were also "particularly visible in the Soviet cultural and propaganda apparatus" and they "dominated the Soviet film industry." [GINSBERG, B., 1993, p. 31] Half of the June 1930 membership of the Communist Academy -- a philosophy organization -- were also Jewish. "It is obvious that from the very first moves to revive academic and scholarly work in the philosophical field [in Russia]," notes Yehoshua Yakhot, "the part played by Jews was considerable and, in a certain sense, predominant." [YAHOT, p. 244] By 1984, as one percent of the Soviet populace, one author even found that even 33 per cent of Soviet musicologists were Jews. [BRAUN, J. , p. 85]
More than once in Soviet history, Jews have fallen under government suspicion for a collective foreign intrigue -- many charged as agents of "American imperialism" or Israel. Sometimes portrayed in the Soviet press during Stalin era as men of "uncertain allegiance," notes Isaac Deutscher, the newspapers
"revealed systematically the Jewish names of writers who had been
know to the public under Russian pseudonyms ... The Jews were to
some extent protected by their prominence in vital spheres of the
national life, in the management of industry, in nuclear research, in
the [communist] party machine, in the academic world, and in the
armed forces. (Nearly twenty thousand Jews held teaching posts in
the Universities)." [DEUTSCHER, p. 608]
Among those many purged by Stalin in 1953 was the Jewish head (Palgunov) of Tass, the government news agency. [HYDE, H.M., 1971, p. 590] In 1937, in a purge of the Commander of the Red Army, seven of his top generals went with him. Four of these generals were Jewish --Yan Garmarik, Yon Yakir, R. Eideman, and B. Feldman. [HYDE, H.M., 1971, p. 351-352]
Opponents of indigenous European nationalist movements, Jews also rose to power in enforcing communist rule over post-World War II Soviet satellite countries, including Czecheslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. In Hungary, for example, Mathiou Rakosi was the Communist Party leader and Peter Gabor headed the secret police. Eduard Oklag, Yokub Berman and Gilyari Minz were prominent in the Polish government, Anna Pauker in Romania. "It was she," notes Howard Sachar, "not the [Communist] party's chairman, Gheorghe Gheorghin-Dej, who made the key policy decisions in her triple capacity as deputy premier, foreign minister, and deputy secretary of the central committee Simeon Bughichi, Mrs. Pauker's successor as foreign minister, was also Jewish ... There were several Jews [after World War II] ... who played leading roles in the [Yugoslavian communist] government. The most eminent of these was Moshe Pijade [president of the Yugoslav National Assembly]." [SACHAR, H., 1985, p. 363, 365, 315]
A number of these Jewish leaders throughout the communist system met their end in government power purges. In Czecheslovakia, for example, Rudolph Slansky and ten other Jewish elites of the party were tried; eight were executed. "The Slansky trial," note Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, "was in part a move to purge the Czech communist party of its Jewish leadership." [RADOSH/MILTON, p. 349] Jewish scholar Barnet Litvinoff adds that
"When Stalin's tyranny was at its height, and his grasp upon his
satellites complete, powerful Jewish personalities were conspicuous
in the Communist hierarchies of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
and Romania ... Hilary Minc and Jacob Berman who returned to
Warsaw ... stood very close to the master in the Kremlin ... Erno
Gero, Matyas Rakosi, and Mihaly Farkas occupied similar
positions in Hungary, while Anna Pauker was the unquestioned
mistress of Romania, with authority comparable to Rudolf
Slansky's in Czechoslovakia. The list was an extensive one, and
included government and Party officials alike, ambassadors
abroad, and some military figures trained by the Soviet secret
police, not to mention university professors, film producers and
broadcasting personalities." [LITVINOFF, B., p. 104-105]

     Philip Mendes notes Jewish prominence in a wide variety of communist and left wing movements throughout the world:

"As early as the French Revolution of 1830, Jews played an active role in radical movements [including Michel Goudchaux, Philippe Anspach, Michel Alcan, Olinde Rodrigues, Adolphe Cremieux, and Josue Leon] ... In the 1860s and '70s Jewish activists occupied some of the highest positions in the fledgling Russian revolutionary movement. The 'pioneer of Russian-Jewish revolutionary action' was Nicholas Utin [Others included Mark Natanson, Paul Axelrod, George Plekahnov, Vera Zasulitch, Rosalie Bograd, Meir Molodetsky, Gregory Goldenberg, Lew
 Deutch, Vladimir Jochelson, Aaron Sundelievitch, and Hsya Helfmann] ... Jewish  individuals also played a prominent role in all the Russian radical movements, from the Socialist Revolutionaries to the Mensheviks to the Bolsheviks ... In Hungary ... for almost four decades in fact, the top leaders of the Communist Party were Jews ...
In France, many Jews have figured prominently in the leadership of the Communist Party, including Charles Rappoport, Jean Kanapa, Jean Ellerstein, Haim Cukierman, Charles Fierman and Henri Krasucki." [MENDES, P., 1993, p. 9-13]

    Other countries of prominent Jewish radicalism cited by Mendes included Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Holland, Austria, Germany, Spain, Great Britain, Chile, and the Middle East.

Ultimately, Benjamin Ginsberg [GINSBERG, B., 1993] alludes to the reoccurring paradigm to all this, that Jews throughout European history have sought benefit from allegiance to ruling powers -- from absolute monarchists to communist dictatorships -- which oppressed, suffocated, and even massacred non-Jewish masses. As a people who historically distanced themselves from the indigenous peoples of every land they lived and as centuries-old nemeses of the Christian order, Jews were ideally suited to function as dispassionate legislators -- and exploiters and oppressors -- over those of whom they had no real bond or interest. "The Gentile population in general," says Ewa Morawska about Eastern Europe, "and the inhabitants of villages surrounding the [Jewish community] in particular, were seen by Jews primarily in instrumental terms as suppliers of ... material livelihood." [MORAWSKA, p. 15] For those many Jews who had a religious basis in their lives, traditional Judaism often served the interests of devaluing others. As consequence, Jewish communities periodically engendered the wrath -- and sometimes violence -- of the common populace.
Jewish scholar George Mosse frames the common bond between the polar politics of the Jewish European capitalist and communist this way:
"There was an affinity between the Jewish bourgeoisie which supported the newest in the arts, placing themselves squarely on the side of the
modernists, and their wayward socialist children, who wanted to
overthrow the existing social and economic order. This affinity was
based on shared ideals that the sons wanted to realize more completely than the fathers had." [MOSSE, G., 1985, p. 57]

"Empirical data," adds Jewish scholar Norman Cantor, "support the contention of French and German anti-Semites in the 1920s and 1930s that the Jews were both capitalists and communists, and thus doubly anathema to the reactionary racist movements that funneled into Judeo-phobic fascism. The German cartoons of the 1920s who depicted Jews as both bloated capitalists swallowing European civilization and nefarious red terrorists plotting to blow up western civilization were not engaging in absolute fantasy, even though Jewish apologists then and historians now like to make that accusation and try to forget the whole thing." [CANTOR, p. 275]

Communist Poland

     Stephan Korbanski indicts Jewish communists of the secret police agencies in the post-war destruction of Poland:
"To realize his plan of seizing total control of Poland, Stalin formed two teams: one to satisfy appearances and the Western Allies, the
other to actually rule Poland. The first was headed by the Polish
communist Warda Wasilewska and the other by Jacob Berman, who
knew Stalin well. The choice of Berman was connected with his Jewish origins, which exonerated him from suspicion of Polish patriotism and advocacy of Poland's independence. Stalin regarded the Jews as cosmopolites, whose loyalties would be to Zionism rather than the country of their residence ... [KORBANSKI, p. 73] The principal instrument of Berman's power was his total control of
the Ministry of State Security, which began -- under Stalin's
instructions -- to liquidate all centers of Polish opposition, often by
simply murdering persons suspected of advocating Poland's
independence. [KORBANSKI, p. 74]
Jewish historians Pawel Korzec and Jean-Charles Szurek also "admit [that] the Jewish youth and proletariat played an important ('although not exclusive') role in the apparatus of oppression." [BARTOSZEWSKI, p. 18] One Jewish veteran, Wladyslaw Krajewski, of the earlier pre-World War II Communist Party (KPP), estimated that half of its leadership was of Jewish origin. [KRAJEWSKI, W., p. 94] With Jews representing about 10% of the Polish population that was mostly Catholic with relatively little interest in communism, "in the large cities the percentage of Jews in the [Communist Party] often exceeded 50 per cent and in the smaller cities, frequently over 60 per cent. Given this background, [the] statement that 'in small cities like ours, almost all communists were Jews' does not appear to be a gross exaggeration. [SCHATZ, p. 96]
In Warsaw about 65 per cent of the Communist membership was Jewish. In 1930 "Jews constituted 51 percent of the [Communist Union of Polish Youth], while ethnic Poles were only 19 percent. (The rest were Bylerussians and Ukrainians)." [SCHATZ, p. 96] In 1932 Jews were 90 percent of the International Organization for Help to Revolutionaries. [SCHATZ, p. 97] They were also 54 percent of the communist field leadership, 75 percent of its propagandists, and "occupied most of the seats" of the Central Committee of the Communist Workers' Party and Communist Party of Poland. In pre-World War II Poland, many communist activists were jailed. Polish researcher Andrzej Zwolinski fond that "in Polish court proceedings against communists between 1927 and 1936, 10 percent of those accused were Polish Christians and 90 percent were Jews." [PIOTROWSKI, p. 36] [SCHATZ, p. 97] Not surprisingly, the formal positions of the Polish Communist Party included a "firm stand against anti-Semitism." [SCHATZ, p. 100]
Furthermore, the symbology of three very high level Jewish officers -- Minc, Berman, and Zambrowski -- in the post-war oppressive Communist institutions, "became a lasting part of anti-Semitic vocabulary." [SCHATZ, p. 206] "All three communist leaders who dominated Poland between 1948 and 1956, [Jacob] Berman, Boleslaw Bierut, and Hilary Minc, were Jews." [MACDONALD, 1998, p. 63] As the Catholic Primate of Poland, Cardinal Hlond, noted in 1976, ethnic Polish anti-Jewish sentiment was now "due to the Jews who occupy leading positions in Poland's government and endeavor to introduce a governmental structure that the majority of Poles do not wish to have." [SCHATZ, p. 207]
Chaim Kaplan even noted with sarcasm in 1939 the Russian representative to the Nazis in a pre-war German-Soviet treaty: "Representatives of [the Nazis'] former arch-enemy, the Bolshevik-Jewish government, are now guests in this zone and have been received with royal honors. The head of the Soviet delegation is a Jew, the Nazi's 'friend' Litvinov. When it is time to engage in politics, nobody cares about race." [KAPLAN, C., p. 84]
Stephan Korbanski also notes that the Soviet Communist secret police
"team assembled by Berman [whose brother Adolf was chairman of
the Jewish Committee in Poland till 1947, when he immigrated to Israel]
[CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 85] at the beginning of his rule were all
Jewish -- Vice Minister Natan Grunsapau-Kikiel (Roman
Romkowski) [who once interrogated Korbanski], and other high officials
like General Julius Hibner (David Schwartz), Anatol Fejgin, security
police chief Joseph Swiatlo, Joseph Rozanski (Goldberg), 'Colonel
Czaplicki,' and Zygmut Okret. These were not the only Jewish officials
who oppressed Poles in the name of communism. Victor Klosiewicz, a
member of the Communist Council of State, has stated that 'it was
unfortunate that all the department directors in the Ministry of State
were Jews.'" [KORBANSKI, p. 78]
"Jacek Rozanski," notes Polish author Jacek Borkowicz, was "director of the Investigative Department of the Polish State Security Ministry" and was "sentenced in 1955 to five years imprisonment [a later trial in 1957 sentenced him to fifteen years]" for "using inadmissible means of persuasion during interrogations ... Son of a prominent Warsaw Yiddish-language journalist (on the pro-Zionist 'Hajnt'), Rozanski was a dedicated communist who .. maintained his Jewish identity until the end." [BORKOWICZ, p. 343-344] "All the detainees described [Rozanski] as an exceptionally cynical and sadistic psychopath who liked to torture prisoners needlessly," notes Jewish author Michael Checinski, "... Rozanski's Jewish origin was then common knowledge, in spite of his Polonized name." [CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 80]
The aforementioned Anatol Fejgin was head of the "Tenth Department of the Polish State Security Ministry -- the special unit answerable to the Party First Secretary and concerned with spying on the communist leadership [and he] was sentenced at the same trial in 1957 to twelve years' imprisonment." [BORKOWICZ, p. 344]
Jewish author Michael Checinski notes the post-World War II case of Semyon Davidov who
"held the relatively modest post of head of Soviet advisers in Poland.
But no serious operational decisions on any question pertaining to
political provocations or police terror could ever be taken without
Davidov's consent. On the one hand, Davidov and his personal
network supervised the activities of the Soviet advisers in all the
mainstays of real power in Poland (the armed forces, security
service, party apparatus, state administration, and industry). But
he also was responsible for overseeing the entire Polish apparatus
of terror." [CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 51]
Abel Kainer (a pseudonym of Stanislaw Krajewski, a Polish Jew) adds that
"The archetype of the Jew during the first ten years of the Polish
People's Republic was generally perceived as an agent of the secret
political police. It is true that under Bierut and Gomulka (prior to 1948)
the key positions in the Ministry of State Security were held by Jews or
persons of Jewish background. It is a fact which cannot be
overlooked, little known in the West and seldom mentioned by the
Jews of Poland. Both prefer to talk about Stalin's anti-Semitism ....
The machinations of communist terror functioned in Poland in a matter
[sic] similar to that used in other communist ruled countries in Europe.
What requires explanation is why it is operated by Jews. The reason
was the political police, the base of communist rule, required personnel
of unquestionable loyalty to communism. These were people who had
joined the Party before the war and in Poland they were predominately
Jewish. " [KORBANSKI, p. 79]
"The feeling that Jews are oppressors probably sounds absurd to many westerners," wrote Stanislaw Krajewski, under his own name. "The only sense it has derives from the Jewish participation in the oppressive rule in Poland, and in particular the fact that a lot of Jews looked favorably at the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland in 1939." [KRAJEWSKI, p. 50] Most Poles did not look favorably at such a scenario. World War II was a struggle for them on two fronts -- in the West against the Nazi fascists, and in the East against the Russian communists.
Even a Jewish scholar/polemicist like Robert Wistrich, who expresses astonishment that one-third of West Germany after World War II still felt that anti-Semitism was primarily caused by "Jewish characteristics," concedes that
"After the Polish communist seizure of power in 1948 there were
indeed a number of Jews like Jakob Berman, Hilary Minc, and
Roman Zambrowski, who did play key roles in the party, the
security services, and economic planning. No doubt they were
considered by Moscow as being less susceptible than the Catholic
majority to Polish nationalist feelings, though in the eyes of many
Poles they were little better than agents of a foreign, semi-colonial
power ... the anti-communist underground was convinced that
Jews were deliberately betraying Poland." [WISTRICH, AIE, p. 271]
In another, related, example of the usual sharp double standard of Jewish morality and responsibility, in an article entitled, "Lithuania May Charge Jews for Crimes Against Humanity," in December 1997 the Jewish Telegraphic Agency reported the Lithuanian response to a Jewish-lobbied letter by thirty United States Congressmen to the president of Lithuania, insisting that he "put suspected [World War II] criminals on trial." Kazys Pednycia, the prosecutor general of Lithuania, "alarmed local Jewish leaders" by announcing that his office "would not only study the massacres of Jews committed by both Germans and Lithuanians during the war, but also crimes committed by Jews against Lithuanians when the country was under Soviet control." "Of course there were Jews who suffered from Lithuanians," said Pednycia, "But there were also just the opposite cases, and we all know that." "The presence of Jews in the Soviet secret police," noted JTA reporter Lev Krichevsky, "has prompted many Lithuanians to share the sentiments expressed by the prosecutor general." The chairman of the Jewish community in Lithuania, Simonas Alperavicius, responded to the prosecutor's comments about Jews by declaring them "absolutely false," "non-ethical," and "historically wrong." [KRISCHEVSKY, Lith, p. 16] In 2000, Lithuanian requests for the extradition of Nahman Dushanski and Simion Borkov from Israel, for the mass murder of Lithuanians during World War II, were denied by the Jewish state. [MELMAN, 2-10-2000]
Jewish pre-eminence in communist terrorist police organizations in the Ukraine was the same. A Canadian of Ukrainian descent, Lubomyr Prytulak, notes a 1997 volume published in his homeland entitled "The Jewish Conquest of the Slavs." It was produced by Security Service of the Ukraine, today's state police agency. In tabulating the nationalities of 183 biographies in the volume of leading officials in the terrorist Soviet secret police agencies (the dreaded Cheka-GPU-NKVD), Prytulak notes, on average, about six out of ten such people were Jewish. This percentage doesn't include, of course, those who successfully hid their Jewish identities, a practice common in Eastern Europe. As Prytulak concludes,
"One possible reason that Jews incessantly paint the false image of
themselves as victims of Ukrainians is because of the reality that
Ukrainians have been among the foremost victims of Jews ... A
more thoughtful examination of the phenomenon of anti-Semitism
reveals many reasons for viewing it -- at least in some of its
manifestations -- not as an irrational and unexplainable and
gratuitous hatred, but as a natural and understandable antipathy
from an acquaintance with Jewish misbehavior." [PRYTULAK]
Richard Rhodes notes the prominence of Bela Kun and other Jewish communist elite in Hungary, and future (Jewish) nuclear bomb scientist Edward Teller's family there:
"The leaders of the Commune and many among its officials were
Jewish ... Max Teller warned his son that anti-Semitism was coming.
Teller's mother expressed her fears more vividly. 'I shiver at what my
people are doing,' she told her son's governess in the heyday of the
Commune. 'When this is over there will be a terrible revenge.'"
[RHODES, R., 1986, p. 111-112]
Bela Kun, notes Louis Rapoport,
"a Jew, [was] the cruel tyrant of the 1919 Communist revolution in
Hungary and later Stalin's chief of terror in the Crimea." [RAPOPORT, L., 1990, p. 56]
In Russia, the "home" of communism, the preeminence of Jews in oppressive state departments, including the terrorist secret police, and the enforced starving of millions, was the same. [See details -- Genrikh Yagoda, head of the secret police; Lazar Kaganovich, head of the "Apparatus of Terror," Jewish dominance of the Soviet concentration camp system, et al -- earlier] As Richard Pipes notes: "Unlike the mass murder of Jews by the Nazis, every aspect which is known in sickening detail, even the general course of the Communist holocaust of 1918-1920 remains concealed." [PIPES, R., 1990, p. 823]
The following observation is written by a Jewish author, Shmuel Ettinger, with the normal Jewish framing of Russian perception about the subject as irrationally anti-Semitic:
"There is a tendency in Russian intellectual circles "to view the
Bolshevik Revolution as an essentially non-Russian phenomenon,
which took place under the influence of the minority nations in the
Russian empire, chiefly the Jews. There are those who regard the
political terror as a phenomenon connected mainly with the Jews
(this element is to be found in, or inferred from [Nobel laureate]
Aleksander Solzhenitsyn, the [communist] oppositionist, and
Valentin Kataev, the official writer). Such an attitude is also
behind militant anti-Semitism, born in publicistic writings and
in belles-lettres, portraying the Jews as plotters who, since Peter
the Great, have sought to harm Russia and are now corrupting
Soviet society. In this manner anti-Jewish pogroms and measures
in the past are presented as protests against exploitations." [ETTINGER, p. 21]
In communist Poland, according to Pinek Maka (a Jew), the Secretary of Security for Silesia, the number of Jewish officers in the dreaded OSS (the secret police organization) was 150 to 225 (as much as 75% of the total) -- merely in his own jurisdiction. [SACH, p. 175] Another Jewish OSS officer, Barek Edelstein, estimated that 90% of the Jews of Kattowitz disguised themselves with Polish names. Josef Musial, the Vice Minister for Justice in Poland in 1990, suggested that most officers in the OSS throughout Poland had been Jewish. [SACK, p. 183]
In 1992, when Shlomo Morel, a Jew still living in Poland, was interrogated by Polish authorities who were looking into his past as the commandant of a post-World War II communist concentration camp for Germans and nationalist Poles, "Shlomo went home, wrote a cousin in Israel, asked him for $490, and the next month, in January 1992, took the first plane that he could to Tel Aviv," leaving his Catholic wife behind. [SACH, p. 166] In an interview with Jewish journalist John Sack, Morel advised him that he must not write about the story of Jewish dominance and brutality in the OSS "because it would increase anti-Semitism." [SACH, p. 169]
Surviving prisoners under Morel's rein had testified that:
* "The commandant was Morel, a Hun in human form."
* "The commandant was Morel, a Schweinehund without equal."
* "The commandant, Morel, appeared. The clubs and the dog whips
rained down on us. My nose was broken, and my ten nails were
beaten blue. They later fell off."
* "The commandant, Morel, arrived. I saw him with my own eyes                kill many of my fellow prisoners." [SACK, p. 167]
After World War II, writes Richard Lucas, "Jews in [Polish] cities and towns displayed Red flags to welcome Soviet troops, helped to disarm Polish soldiers, and filled administrative positions in Soviet-occupied Poland. One report estimated that seventy-five per cent of all the top administrative posts in the cities of Lwow, Bialystok, and Luck were in Jewish hands during Soviet occupation ... The entire character of the University of Lwow changed during the Soviet occupation. Prior to the war, the percentage of students broke down as follows: Poles, 70 per cent; Ukrainians 15 per cent; Jews 15 per cent. After the Soviets, the percentage changed to 3 per cent, 12 per cent, and 85 per cent, respectively." [LUCAS, p. 128]
"The evidence, "observed Jewish commentator Aleksander Smolar, "is overwhelming: large numbers of Jews welcomed the Soviet invasion, implanting in Polish memory the image of Jewish crowds greeting the invading Red Army as their liberator." [PIOTROWSKI, p. 50] "Thousands of Polish survivors' testimonies, memoirs, and works of history," notes Polish scholar Tadeusz Piotrowski, "tell of Jewish celebrations, of Jewish harassment of Poles, of Jewish collaboration (denunciations, manhunts, and roundups of Poles for deportation), of Jewish brutality and cold-blooded executions, of Jewish pro-Soviet citizens' committees and militias, and of the high rates of Jews in the Soviet organs of oppression after the Soviet invasion of 1939." [PIOTROWSKI, p. 51]
Testimony to the Jewish Polish response to the Soviet invasion of Poland includes the following Jewish accounts, from the archives of the Yad Vashim Holocaust organization in Israel:
"When the Bolsheviks entered the Polish territories they displayed a great
distrust of the Polish people, but with complete faith in the Jews ... they
filled all the administrative offices with Jews and also entrusted them with
top level positions." [from the town of Grodno]
"I must note that, from the very first, the majority of positions in the
Soviet agencies were taken by Jews." [from the town of Lwow]
"The Russians rely mainly on the Jewish element in filling positions,
segregating, naturally, the bourgeois from the proletariat." [from the
town of Zolkwia]
"A Jewish doctor recalled how local Jewish youths, having formed
themselves into a 'komsomol,' toured the countryside, smashing
Catholic shrines." [near the town of Jaworow]
"Whenever a [pro-Soviet] political march, or protest meeting, or some
other sort of joyful event took place, the visual effect was always the
same -- Jews." [from the town of Lwow]
[PIOTROWSKI, p. 49 - As Piotrowski notes, these comments have
been edited out of an English translation of the source volume,
originally published in Polish]
"The victims of the reign of terror imposed by Stalin and carried out by his Jewish subordinates," says Stephan Korbanski,
"during the first ten years of the war numbered tens of thousands.
Most of them were Poles who had fought against the Germans in
the resistance movement. The communists judged, quite correctly,
that such Poles were the people most likely to oppose the Soviet
rule and were therefore to be exterminated. The task was assigned
to the Jews because they were thought to be free of Polish       patriotism, which was the real enemy." [KORBANSKI, p. 79]
Korbanski then goes on to name and detail 29 more Jewish officials (beyond the ones earlier mentioned) of the communist elite that held positions in suppressing Polish nationalism. But political winds in the communist world shifted drastically. Between 1967 and 1968 over 900 Jewish communist officials were purged from Kremlin ranks; Korbanski sees a direct link to Israel's 1967 military victory over the Arabs. Russia had backed the Arabs and Jewish Russian loyalties -- per Israel -- were put into question. [KORBANSKI, p. 85]
"In places like Gleibwitz," writes John Sack, "the Poles stood against the prison walls as Implementation tied them to big iron rings, said, 'Ready! Aim! Fire!,' shot them, and told the Polish guards, 'Don't talk about this.' The guards, being Poles, weren't pleased, but the Jacobs, Josefs, and Pinteks, the office's brass [of the Office of State Security] stayed loyal to Stalin, for they thought of themselves as Jews, not as Polish patriots ... Stalin ... had hired all the Jews on Christmas Eve, 1943, and packed them into his Office of State Security, his instrument in the People's Republic of Poland. And now, 1945, the Poles went to war with the Office, shooting at Jews in Intelligence, Interrogation, and Imprisonment." [SACK, p. 139]
All this, of course, including the Poles own struggle for survival under Nazi rule, the role of Jews in the brutal communist oppression of Polish nationalism, traditional self-imposed Jewish estrangement from Polish society, and Jewish docile acquiescence to Nazi rule is part of the unscholarly "gutter literature" that the likes of David Engel and mainstream Jewry speak.
In 1984, a Polish journalist, Teresa Toranska, had this interchange with Jacob Berman, the despised Jewish former "Minister of State Security" in post-war communist Poland:
Berman: "I was against too large a concentration of Jews in certain
institutions ... it wasn't the right thing to do and it was a
necessary evil that we'd been forced into when we
[communists] took power when the Polish intelligentsia
was boycotting us...
Q: In 1948-49 you arrested members of the [Polish] Home
Army Council of Aid to Jews, the 'Zegata' ... Mr. Berman!
The security services who were all or nearly all Jews                       arrested Poles because they had saved Jews during the                       [Nazi] occupation, and you say the Poles are anti-Semites.                       That's not nice.
Berman: ... It was wrong that that happened. Certainly it was wrong                        ... It was a small group, but very dedicated, and it took
enormous risks to look after Jews during the war."
[TORANSKA, p. 321]
Toranska also talked to Roman Werbel, a prominent Jewish communist ideologue and editor of major Polish communist journals, who discussed the implications of the brutality wrought by Jewish security officers upon Poles in fomenting anti-Semitism:
"Beating causes degradation not only in the person who is beaten,
but in the person doing the beating as well. So it's better to shoot
someone than to beat him ... There are principals you have to
stick to in beating, however Johnny has to be beaten by Johnny
and not Moshe ... I can see now that there were too many Jews in
the security services." [TORANSKA, p. 109]
Jewish apologist Michael Checinski (whose world view of Poland is fed by the omnipresent anti-Semitism model, whereby even in the act of oppression of Poles, Jews are themselves considered victims of an anti-Jewish plot concocted by an anti-Semitic communist regime) argues that
"while by coincidence or evil design, Jewish officials were often placed
in the most conspicuous posts; hence they could easily be blamed for
all the regime's crimes ...[CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 62] ... Jews -- and
especially those with Jewish names or striking Semitic features -- could
be placed in the most controversial posts (for example, those dealing
with Church affairs or the campaign against the political underground)
and thus deflect antiregime feelings into anti-Semitism. This policy was
implemented not only in Poland, but throughout Eastern Europe, where
the new [communist] governments, ruling only with the military support
of the Soviet army, were seen by their own peoples as puppets."
[CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 63]
In 1999, the government of Poland was still seeking to try a Jewish woman, Helena Brus (now living in England), who in the post-World War II communist regime was Poland's chief military prosecutor. Polish investigators, noted the Jerusalem Report, say "that Brus ... played a key role in the trial and execution of a hero of the Polish resistance, General Emil Fieldorf ... The anti-Communist Fieldorf, hanged after a one-day trial in 1953 but posthumously pardoned in 1989, was an intelligence officer in the underground Polish Home Army in World War II." [WINNER, D., p. 37]
In 1994, the New York Times discussed the case against Marcel Reich-Ranicki, a well-known German Jewish literary critic who had emigrated from Poland. "He was forced to admit his involvement with the Polish secret police from 1944 to 1950," says Carol Oppenheim, "after his name turned up on the front page of a Warsaw newspaper publishing excerpts from a secret Polish intelligence archive." [OPPENHEIM, p. 39]
"Hundreds of Jews," writes Jewish author John Sack, "were operating in all of Poland and Poland-administered Germany ... [SACK, p. 6] ... Many [officers of the OSS] were Jewish boys but few used Jewish names ... [SACK, p. 39] ... The talk was in Yiddish, mostly ... About three out of four of the officers -- two hundred rowdy boys -- in the Office of State Security in Kattowitz [Poland's large industrial city] were Jews ... They used names like Stanislaw Niegoslawski, a name that belonged to a [Polish prisoner]." [SACH, p. 40]

There are even more profound Holocaust-era facts that the Jewish community vehemently strives to bury. While on the one hand the Jewish community wields the "We Shall Never Forget" injunction about their Holocaust, the facts of Jewish-created mass murder are forcibly covered up. In 1993, for instance, Jewish journalist John Sack published the results of his interviews with 23 Jewish OSS (the communist secret police in post-war Poland) officers and 55 family members or friends of Jewish members of the dreaded OSS. The book, not surprisingly, has been subject to a concerted and massive censorial effort [see later chapter]. Sack was shocked with what he found in his seven years of research on the subject: 60,000-80,000 Germans and Poles were murdered in Jewish-run concentration camps, "more than the number of [Jews] who died at Belsen and Buchenwald." [SACH, p. 14]
"Jews," says Sack, "were sometimes as cruel as their [Nazi] exemplars at Auschwitz, and they even ran the organization that ran the prisons and ... the concentration camps for German civilians in Poland and Poland-administered Germany ... The Jews who committed [atrocities] covered them up ... I learned that in 1945 they killed a great number of Germans: not Nazis, not Hitler trigger men, but German civilians, German men, women, children, babies, whose 'crime' was just to be German ... The Germans lost more civilians [this way than] ... the Jews themselves lost in all of Poland's pogroms. So I had learned, and I was aghast to learn it." [SACK, p. x] Sack notes Jewish torturers sticking toads down peoples' throats, whippings, and some buried alive in potato sacks. A hundred non-Jews at the Myslowitz concentration camp, for instance, were murdered each day. [SACK, p. 110] The death rate in some Jewish-controlled camps was 80%. [SACK, p. 206]
Simply the reporting of facts is, for many Jews, a manifestation of anti-Semitism. Note this letter by a Polish Jew to a Jewish magazine in 1998:
"Recently, [Polish] Panorama TV News showed a report about
Jaworzno camp, where members or suspected members of
independence fighters groups (many of them were Ukrainians),
were imprisoned with the statement that it is difficult today to
find traces of the camp, for the buildings which had housed the
inmates had been converted into regular housing, the barracks
have been dismantled and the former commander had left for
Israel. My husband was outraged by this conclusion, and he
said that such a blatantly anti-Semitic statement on a public new
broadcast is sheer manipulation." [MAKOWIECKA, A., p. 3]

    In the 1980s, John Sack paid a visit to Yad Vashem to search for information about the hundreds of Jews who ran the murderous post-war concentration camps under the auspices of the Office for State Security for Germans and anti-communist Poles. Virtually all former Jewish OSS members have successfully hidden their past and many had moved to America. One such person has become the "vice-president of the United Synagogues of America and a chairman of the United Jewish Appeal." [SACK, p. 151]
Yad Vashem's repository, writes Sack,
"had fifty million pages, five, on the average, per [Jewish] man, woman,
and child, a mile-long tunnel of pages, all indexed, all catalogued, so I
was surprised it had nothing at all on the Office of State Security [of
Eastern Europe] or the Jews who had run it." [SACK, p. 148]
The director of the Holocaust center told Sack the facts he had thus far uncovered were "imaginary":
"'Impossible!' the Director said ... [He glowered] at me as though
he would choke me, a man who might someday write that the Jews
sometimes killed the Germans [and Poles] when all the fifty million
pages said it was the other way around." [SACK, p. 148]
Sack's investigation at Vad Yashem did turn up, however, the intriguing fact that the vice-chairman of this vast Holocaust propaganda post had himself served as an officer in the notorious OSS. He had even been a torturer, a "heavy-handed interrogator" at the Neisse concentration camp. "I was terrible," he told Sack. "But better not to speak about this." [SACK, p. 148-149]

      And while angry Jewish scholarship fingers Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, and other Nazi collaborators as moral beasts to be hunted down still today throughout the world, parallel Jewish criminals are never even mentioned. Popular Jewish convention demands collective Jewish innocence and a correspondingly collective Gentile evil. Period. In this context, Wladyslaw Bartoszewski addresses today's chronic double standard held for Jews and Poles in the World War II situation:
"While the Polish masses are criticized or condemned for their
reluctance to help the Jews ... a double standard is applied towards
those members of the Jewish community who worked in Jewish
Councils ... [They] are excused, on the grounds that they had little
choice, much more willingly than those Gentiles whose caution or
fear prevented them from offering help to Jews ... Most Poles
particularly resent this application of a double standard to those
Jewish individuals who were active in, and high-ranking members
of the Communist Party, and especially the security police ... No
one ... can claim that he or (very often) she had to be a member of
the Stalinist political force or judiciary and, for one reason or another,
had no choice but to torture and kill their innocent political
opponents." [BARTO, Conv, p. 29]


      Investigations of Jewish loyalties are not unwarranted. The issue of dual loyalty in the spy context, for example, has a very substantial history in the American Jewish community with some disturbing precedents during the post-World War II American-Soviet "Cold War." In recent years, with the collapse of the Soviet Union's communist regime, KGB and FBI archives have been increasingly accessible for scholarly examination and it is has become starkly clear that a large proportion of American spies for communist Russia were Jewish. They were instrumental in helping the Soviet Union secure American nuclear bomb secrets, as well as other espionage. In the 1950s, notes Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, "fear that the Jewishness of so many of the atom-bomb spy suspects would provoke an anti-Semitic reaction led to a defensive attempt [by Jewish organizations] to prove the patriotism of America's Jewish community and 'scare off' Jews who might be attracted to the Left." [RADOSH/MILTON, p. 353]
"What has proven most disturbing," noted the Jewish Exponent in 1999,
"is the picture we have of the extent of the betrayal -- truly overwhelming
in sheer bulk. The fact that many Jewish [American] radicals participated
in espionage [for Russia] sticks in peoples' throats ... Spies, spies
everywhere ... [Recent books about the subject] are invaluable for what
they add to our knowledge of the [Cold War] period and may yet spur a
bout of soul-searching among the remnants of the progressive community in America, so many of whom were -- and are -- Jewish ... [Such betrayers] allowed the Soviet Union to develop atomic weapons years before it may have been [otherwise] possible." [LEITER, p. 46]
Kevin MacDonald notes the 1950s case of Andhil Fineberg of the American Jewish Committee and his exploring of Jewish defensive strategies over the
"repercussions of the fact that the great majority of communist spies
were Jews ... Fineberg suggested that the best way to combat this
threat to Jews was to de-emphasize Jewish group identity of 'good
Jews' like Bernard Baruch as well as a 'bad Jews' like the communist
spies. Identifying people like Bernard Baruch as Jews 'reinforces the
concept of group responsibility' and 'the residue in the mind of the
average American person whom the editorial is intended to influence,
is likely to be, 'But why is it all those atomic spies are all Jews?'
Fineberg argued that an attempt by Communist Party members to
portray their persecution as anti-Semitism would be 'devastating' to
Jews generally and recommended that the AJCommitttee reply to
charges linking Jews and communism to the effect that 'criminals
operate as individuals, not as members of religious or racial groups.'"
[MACDONALD, p. 25]
A variety of people of course functioned as spies during the Cold War, but among the disturbing implications of such recent revelations is that the Soviet side of the Russian spy system was in large part Jewish too; a critical examination of the Soviet transnational spy system points in no small way to Jewish networking. As high-ranking KGB officer Pavel Sudoplatev noted in 1994, "The men and women [in Russia] who were most influential in acquiring atomic bomb secrets for the Soviet Union were all later purged because they were Jewish [i.e., Soviet intelligence officers were eventually driven from the ranks because of allegations of a 'Zionist conspiracy' within it]." [SUDOPLATEV] Or, as Jewish scholars Stanley Rothman and S. Robert Lichter noted in 1982:

"Allen Weinstein's study, Perjury, seems to indicate that Jews constituted
a substantial majority of known members of the Soviet underground apparatus in the United States during the 1930s. Soviet agents whose backgrounds were probably Jewish include J. Peters, Lee Pressman, Harry Dexter White, Marian Bachrach, Hedda Gompertz, and many others." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 100]
On the American side of the Soviet spy network, perhaps the most famous spy case in American history centered on two Jewish communists -- Ethel and Julius Rosenberg -- who were convicted and executed in 1953 for passing along secrets to the Soviet Union. Harry Gold and David Greenglass were also Jewish accomplices. Until recent intelligence disclosures, for decades many Jews have held that the Rosenbergs "were blameless [and] ... that the couple had been framed by the FBI and had been executed out of a mixture of anti-Semitism and the government's wish to set an example to all self-professed radicals." Recent investigations, however, noted the Jewish Exponent, "had to conclude that their subjects were guilty as charged." [LEITER, 2-4-99, p. 57]
Curiously, "by design or destiny," also said the Exponent, "all the principals in the [Rosenberg] case were Jews. The presiding judge was Irving Kaufman, the prosecutor Irving Saypole was assisted by Roy Cohn, and the defense lawyers were Alexander and Emmanuel Bloch, father and son. To redress the balance, the jury was all gentile." [LUVIA, Y., 7-2-93, p. 1x] (This situation paralleled a similar court case in South Africa, the Rivonia trial, where there was a "prevalence of Jews in the [Communist] Party ... In a striking echo of the Rosenberg Trial in this country," notes David Biale, the prosecuting attorney, Percy Yutar, was himself Jewish and may have been partly motivated to show that Jews could be loyal to the regime.") [BIALE, D., 2000, p. 64]
"The [Rosenberg] jury complexion, noted the Toronto Star in 1986, "has prompted charges that the Rosenbergs were victims of an anti-Semitic cabal." [AGES, A., p. M5] By 1999, however, the Jewish Exponent noted that "with the unearthing of voluminous evidence from the files of the FBI and the Kremlin, those who cling to the notion that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and [Gentile] Alger Hiss were innocent deserve to be compared to people who believe the world is flat." [TOBIN, J., 3-11-95, p. 33]

    Peter Novick notes the dimensions of Jewish communist spies in that era:

"Lucy Dawidowicz -- later well known as an historian of the Holocaust, but in these years the American Jewish Committee's expert on the percentage  of Jews among 'hostile witnesses' before various investigative bodies. Jews,  she found, often made up 75 percent or more of the totals. Worst of all, producing something near panic among mainstream Jewish organizations,  was the number of Jews figuring in espionage prosecutions: the Amerasia case, the Canadian Spy Ring, the Judith Coplon case -- culminating in  that ultimate disaster for Jewish public relations, the case of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Morton Sobell, Harry Gold, and David Greenglass." [NOVICK, P., 1999, p. 92]
There was also Nathan Silvermaster, "a Russian-born economist who worked for the [American] Farm Securities Administration [and] established a network of friends in government to provide Soviets material and to aid the U.S.S.R. during World War II." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 189] Jewish-Russian Isak Akhmerov was the Soviet control officer of Yakov Golos (also Jewish), "the chief organizer of espionage activities through the American communist party." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 219] Gregory Kheifetz, Jewish too and one of the main organizers of the American Communist Party, had worldwide assignments from the Russians. [SUDOPLATOV, p. 84-85] Soviet agent Naum Isakovich Eitingen "used his connections in the [American] Jewish community to obtain new papers and identity." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 79] The Rosenberg's Russian case officer was also Jewish, Sam Semyonov (real name: Abe Taubman).
Controversial, prominent, and fabulously wealthy Jewish entrepreneur and art philanthropist Armand Hammer had long been under suspicion -- he was called by his secretary "the Pimp of the Politburo." [KUROPAS, p. 7] "Armand and his father," notes Edward Epstein, "had become crucial parts of the Soviet clandestine organization [in America] ... [EPSTEIN, 1996, p. 103] ... By 1940, British intelligence had developed a lengthy dossier on Hammer. It identified him and his associates as part of the Soviet 'secret regime' in the West." [EPSTEIN, 1996, p. 152] FBI files notes that Hammer "had been a Soviet courier," "he had laundered funds for the Soviet Union," "he had helped recruit Soviet spies and position them in the United States government," and "he had been, in the 1920s, a key link in a network that provided money to espionage rings in New York and London." [EPSTEIN, 1996, p. 170]
Carl Blumay notes the fundamentally Jewish nature of Hammer's contacts in early Soviet Russia:
"From the moment of his arrival [in Russia] he was surrounded by old
family friends, among them Ludwig Martens, whom Lenin had appointed
to head the Soviet mining industry after his deportation from the United
States; Boris Reinstein, whose functions as Soviet propaganda minister
included serving as guide to visiting Americans; Julius Hammer's
[Armand's father's] partner, Abe Heller, whom the State Department
categorized as 'a notorious Bolshevik'; and the Hammer family's
European representative, Boris Mishell, whose first assignment was to
locate a Mercedes Benz for Armand." [BLUMAY, C., 1992, p. 43]
Maurice Halperin, who while heading "the research department of the Office of Strategic Services, America's main intelligence agency at the time, gave hundreds of American diplomatic cables to the KGB." [LEITER, p. 46] Bella Gold in the U.S. Commerce Department and Sonya Gold in the U.S. Treasury Department [WEINSTEIN, A.; VASSILEV, p. 167] were among those working with the aforementioned Nathan Silvermaster, a U.S. Treasury Department official who was also working as a Soviet espionage "group handler."
Theodore Hall (also Jewish: original last name Holtzberg), while working on the nuclear bomb in Los Alamos, New Mexico, was "the only American scientist known to have given the Soviet Union details on the design of an atom bomb." [ALBRIGHT/KUNSTEL, p. 9-17] In 1945, Philip Jaffe, editor of Amerasia magazine, was arrested by the FBI. "Jaffe," noted the Jewish Exponent, "[was] a committed sympathizer [and had] contacts with Soviet intelligence agents and said he wanted to spy for them." [LEITER, 8-22-96]
The only known U.S. Congressman to have spied (beginning in 1937) for the Russians was also Jewish, Samuel Dickstein, for fifteen years a Democratic Congressman from New York, and later a judge. The Russian NKVD (precursor to the KGB) codenamed Dickstein "the Crook" because of his "mercenary instincts." Consummate hypocrite and deceiver, Congressman Dickstein was also "the founding father" of the (HUAC) House Un-American Activities Committee -- the organization that sought to expose Russian communist agents in American government and popular culture in the 1950s. [GUARDIAN, 1-27-99, p. 6] (Ten of the nineteen people subpoenaed by HUAC were Jewish, as were six of the ten who were indicted by the committee). [NAVASKY, p. 113]
Among non-Jewish Americans spying for the Soviets were some whose espionage roots revolved around sexual affairs with Jewish Russian agents: Elizabeth Bentley was the aforementioned Jacob Golos' lover. [WEINSTEIN/VASSELIV, p. 84] Martha Dodd's partner was Soviet agent Boris Vinogradov. In Bentley's case, after Golos died, she defected from the espionage ranks. Jewish Soviet agent Joseph Katz was assigned the task of killing her, but the murder was never carried out. [WEINSTEIN/VASSELIV, p. 108] In Dodd's case, she never knew that her love affair with Vinogradov was being directed from Moscow. She eventually married wealthy Jewish-American businessman Alfred Stern, who also became involved in Soviet espionage activities. Stern was influential in setting up a music business, with a Jewish-American Hollywood producer, Boris Morros, as a front for Soviet espionage efforts. "Most Americans who spied for Moscow during the 1930s," notes Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vasselev, "were antifascist admirers of the Soviet Union whose involvement in espionage had ideological roots. There were two noteworthy exceptions, one a U.S. Congressman [the aforementioned Samuel Dickstein] and the other a Hollywood producer [Boris Morros]. [Both] offered their services as Soviet agents for a price tag." [WEINSTEIN/VASSILEV, photo section] Even Marilyn Monroe's Jewish psychoanalyst, Ralph Greenson, was secretly an agent for the communist Comintern. (Monroe had a series of romantic affairs with the president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and innocently shared information she gleaned from him with Greenson). [WOLFE, D., p. 384]
In later years, the only known Soviet spy to have penetrated the CIA (1973-77), described "in intelligence circles ... as one of the most important spies in United States history" was Karl Koecher. He was also Jewish. Koecher, notes Ronald Kessler, "gave his Czech handlers and the KGB details of dozens of 'top secret' CIA operations targeted at the Soviets and U.S. allies alike. He supplied them with classified CIA documents, lists of photographs of CIA employees in the United States and overseas and names of U.S. government officials who might be blackmailed into cooperating with the Soviets." Koecher and his wife Hana were enjoyed their American stay in the fullest of ways; they were extremely active in group sex orgies, nudist retreats, and wife-swapping events. [KESSLER, 4-17-88, p. C1]
There were a significant number of Jews working on the American Los Alamos nuclear bomb project, including some from other countries like Hans Berthe, Emilio Segre, and Edward Teller. (Jewish equivalents in England included Rudolf Peierls). Such Jewish immigrants were so important in the development of the bomb that Richard Rhodes, in his Pulitzer-prize winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb, devotes an entire chapter to their "exodus" from Europe, particularly Germany and Hungary. Jewish scientists involved in the bomb, Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard, even managed to get Jewish economist Alexander Sachs to convey to President Franklin D. Roosevelt the urgency of building the nuclear weapon. A colleague jokingly called immigrant Jewish bomb developers Szilard, Teller, and Eugene Wigner "the Hungarian conspiracy." [RHODES, R., 1988, p. 306, 308]
The director of the atomic bomb program was also Jewish, J. Robert Oppenheimer. "I had had a continuing, smoldering fury about the treatment of the Jews in Germany," he once said. [RHODES, R., 1988, p. 445] The chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, for that matter, in that era was also Jewish, David Lilienthal. "The most vital information for developing the first atomic bomb," says former top KGB official Pavel Sudoplatov, "came from scientists designing the American atomic bomb at Los Alamos, New Mexico -- Robert Oppenheimer, Enrico Fermi, and Leo Szilard." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 172] (Of the three, Fermi was not Jewish, but his wife was). Jewish Soviet agents Gregory Kheifetz and Elizabeth Zarubin "persuaded Oppenheimer to share information with 'antifascists of German origin' ... Oppenheimer, together with Fermi and Szilard, helped [the Soviets] place moles in Tennessee, Los Alamos, and Chicago as assistants in those three [nuclear] labs." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 190] Others seminally influential with Oppenheimer included Jewish actor Solomon Mikhoels and Yiddish poet Itzik Feffer (later murdered in Soviet purges) -- Russian nationals on a tour of the United States with the Moscow Yiddish State Art Theatre. [SUDOPLATOV, p. 188] Soviet intelligence noted in 1944 that Oppenheimer, head of America's nuclear weapon program, was a "secret member" of the American Communist Party. [WEINSTEIN/VASSILEV, p. 183-184] For Szilard's part, the army's head of atomic bomb security, Leslie Richard Groves, thought the scientist was "the kind of man that any employer would have fired as a troublemaker." "Groves," says Richard Rhodes, "seems to attributed Szilard's brashness to the fact that he was a Jew." [RHODES, R., 1988, p. 502] Groves also suspected the scientist of being a spy and had him put under surveillance, but caught him doing nothing illegal. [RHODES, R., 1988, p. 506-507]

     (Jewish involvement in weapons to invoke "holocausts" are a steady theme. In later years the "father of the neutron bomb" was also Jewish: Samuel Cohen. "Few people know the man behind the neutron bomb," noted the New York Times in 1982, "J. Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller, the key scientists in the development of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, are well known but only dedicated students of weaponry have heard of Mr. Cohen.") [NEW YORK TIMES, 3-28-82, sec. 1, p. 34]
On the Soviet side of the Russian-American spy rings, "the [Russian] men and women who were most influential in acquiring atomic secrets for the Soviet Union were all later purged because they were Jewish." [SCHECHTER, p. 301] These early 1950s purges in Russia (centering on alleged Zionist intrigue in the Russian intelligence agency and other departments) began with the alleged "confessions" of Naum Shvartsmann, whose own job was to edit "falsified confessions extracted from prisoners." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 300-301] Brutal Soviet dictator Josef Stalin grew suspicious of increasing Russian Jewish interest in the new nation of Israel. The principal focus of this concern was the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, an organization created to raise support for the Soviet Union from western Jewry in lobbying other governments against the threat of Hitler. But, to Stalin's chagrin, the JAC soon "brought an extraordinary stirring of Jewish consciousness in its own ranks, reflecting the prevalent mood of Soviet Jewry as a whole ... [It expressed] feelings of [Jewish] national solidarity and Jewish pride ... They were frequently so carried away by their faith and enthusiasm as to overlook the JAC dominant objective, namely, that of spreading Soviet propaganda ... JAC speakers and writers increasingly resorted to biblical imagery, Talmudic references, and Jewish historic symbols." [GILBOA, p. 46-48] Soviet poet Perets Markish, for example, publicly talked about "Jewish brothers" around the world, declaring that "we are one people, and now we are becoming one army." [GILBOA, p. 47] For Stalin, the JAC was turning into a anti-communist threat. Voices were also heard around the world like that of Chief Rabbi J. H. Hertz who announced that, "Let us remember that if we do our full duty, we not only help to smash Hitlerism, but bring back Russian Jewry to the fold of Israel." [author's italics: GILBOA, p. 54]
Shortly after the founding of Israel in 1948, Foreign Minister Golda Meir visited the Soviet Union. Her arrival, notes Stuart Kahan, "brought with it a welcome far beyond anything contemplated. Soviet Jews poured into the streets of Moscow. They surrounded her hotel day and night. Her very appearance brought thunderous roars of approbation. Stalin was in shock. He called an emergency meeting: 'The Jews have still not been able to adapt themselves or become acclimatized like other minorities. Only very few can -- or want to ... They constitute an ever present danger. Every Muscovite Jew has foreign connections. We are threatened by the danger of Zionism.'" [KAHAN, S., p. 250] Among those deeply moved by Meir's visit was Polina Zhemchuzhina, the Jewish wife of Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Joshua Rubenstein notes that Zhemchuzhina met
"members of the Israeli delegation at a diplomatic reception ... [and]
she could hardly restrain herself. 'I've heard you attend the synagogue,'
Zhemchuzhina told Golda Meir, speaking in Yiddish. 'Very good. Keep
going. The Jews want to see you.' When Meir asked how she knew
Yiddish so well, Zhemchuzhina proudly responded, 'Ich bin a Yiddische
tochter' (I am a daughter of the Jewish people), a phrase she repeated
several times. Zhemchuzhina asked about life in Israel, about the Negev
[desert], and conditions on the kibbutzim. She parted from them with
tears in her eyes, saying, 'I wish all will go well for you there and then
it will be good for all Jews.' " [Rubenstein, J., p. 262]
Zhemchuzhina herself was arrested by Soviet security a couple months later and sent into exile.
Although Zionism was banned in Russia under tsarist rule, Nora Levin notes that in the year of the Russian revolution, 1917, the Zionist movement had 300,000 members (of a total Jewish population of 3.5 million) in 1,200 chapters throughout the country. [LEVIN, N., 1988, p. 3, 7] Zionism prevailed in many pan-Jewish organizations -- for example, 60% of the vote in the All-Russian Jewish Congress. In nine Ukrainian provinces, in 193 kehillas (traditional Jewish self-governing bodies), 36% (the largest number of any ideological group) of the delegates were Zionists. "When the Bolsheviks took power," notes Nora Levin, "Zionism was unquestionably the dominant movement in Russian Jewish life." [LEVIN, N. 1988, p. 7, 87] Zionism's free expression after the Russian revolution was stifled by 1919, however, when the new communist government perceived the demands of expressly Jewish nationalism to be a threat. That year the new government also began forcing Zionist offices to close. Communist Party leader V.I. Lenin had called Jewish demands for national autonomy a "Zionist idea ... [one which] is reactionary in its political implications." [LEVIN, N., 1988, p. 17] "There is no doubt," says professor Norma Levin, "that had the [Russian] anti-Zionist campaign been relaxed, many Jews would have joined or rejoined Zionist groups, thus crippling communist control." [LEVIN, N. 1988, p. 94]
The theme of purges of various dissidents, real and imagined, in communist ranks, is a continuous one in Soviet history. Jews were periodically one of the major targets. Ironically, anti-Zionist purges in the 1930s "were all under [Jewish communist leader Lazar Kaganovich's] orchestration, and he relished it ... All Jewish cultural institutions were liquidated. The Communist Party apparatus and the ministries at all levels were purged of Jewish personnel." In the later anti-Zionist purge, prominent Russian Jewish leader S. M. Mikhoels "was shot to death in Minsk ... the order had been given by Lazar with Stalin's approval." [KAHAN, S., p. 250]
Common Jewish-enforced convention in the West holds that Stalin's anti-Zionist purge (and others in Soviet history) was rooted in baseless anti-Semitism. (Jews, of course, were not the only ones subject to brutal purges in the Russian communist past. As Jonathan Franklin notes, "it would be totally erroneous to suggest that the Jews were the only victims of the purges. Initially, at least in the years 1949-51, those communists suspected of national deviation ... were in the greatest danger and, throughout, 'Titoism' remained a major form of anathema held in readiness to fall almost at random on the leaders of the [communist] bloc countries." [FRANKLIN, J., p. 320] ) Philosemitic former KGB official Pavel Sudoplatov, whose perspective is that of a man with a Jewish wife who was a lieutenant in the Russian spy organization, condemns the 1950s anti-Zionist purge as unwarranted. Jewish scholar Barnet Litvinoff notes, however, that "any Jew who does not absolutely denounce Zionism can, with some truth, be charged with accepting it. By this interpretation, the [Zionist] movement is [in 1969] strong in the Soviet Union." [LITVINOFF, B., p. 87]
Or, as Sylvia Rothchild notes:
"In 1965, Elie Wiesel was in Moscow in time to witness the Simchat
Torah celebration. He was astonished to find crowds of young people
dancing and singing in front of the synagogue on Arkhipova Street,
as he reports 'openly celebrating their faith in the people of Israel.'"
[ROTHCHILD, S., 1985, p. 19]
Whatever the case, the charge of "Zionist conspiracy" as a "fifth column" looms as an endless, terrible cycle. Those with primary allegiance to the Jewish state invariably create suspicion in others for all Jews in positions of political power. Those Jews innocent of Zionist allegiance nonetheless gravitate towards Israel as insurance against anti-Jewish hostility. Hence, the problem -- in a self-fulfilling loop -- grows like the nature of anti-Semitism itself: Gentile suspicion of, and outrage at, Jewish alienation and intrigue, followed in consequence by further Jewish alienation, followed by further Gentile alienation, and so forth. Prominent Jewish Russian Zionist Natan Sharansky (famous among international Jewry for his fight to emigrate to Israel) stated the problem succinctly: "I loved Russian culture ... but I was a Jew because of anti-Semitism." When Sharansky was interrogated by the KGB for his Zionist activities, he writes that "I was eager to show the agent that I was a loyal citizen just like him, although I already knew in my heart that wasn't true." [SHARANSKY, p. xiv]
With the Soviet purge of Jews in its intelligence ranks, 50 colonels and generals were arrested, including the Deputy Minister of Security, Andrej Sverdlov, son of the first president of the Soviet Union. Such Jewish characters as Grigori Maironovsky, head of the "top secret toxicological laboratory" who had "personally liquidated a number of the most important enemies of the Communist Party and the Soviet government" [SUDOPLATOV, p. 279] also met their ends. Jews, notes Sudoplatev, were deeply entrenched in the communist elite everywhere: "Key members of the Politburo like Voroshilov and Molotov had Jewish wives; Kaganovich was Jewish." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 300] (Even in America, Earl Browder, for many years the head of the American Communist Party, had a Jewish wife, Raissa Berkman. Polish communist strongman Wladeslaw Gomulka also had a Jewish wife.) [CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 82]
Although there was also a purge of Zionist Jews in the Soviet system in 1922-23 (particularly members of the Politzi Zion: "Police of Zion"), by 1933 "in every major ministry at the time, Jews held top positions." [SUDOPLATOV, p. 288] By 1937, "some students of the Kremlin power struggle put the number of Jewish military officers executed at 500, not less than twenty of them generals." In power struggles not solely aimed at Jews, one-third of the 75,000 Red Army officers were purged from the ranks of communist leadership. [LITVINOFF, B., p. 79] In September 1948, not long after the declaration of the founding of the new nation of Israel, a Jewish Communist Party member, Ilya Ehrenburg (later an elected member of the elite Supreme Soviet), "published a bitter tirade in Pravda against those Jews who looked with approval at Israel and Zionism." [LITVINOFF, B., p. 84]
In Czecheslovakia, Rudolf Slansky, the Vice-Premier of the country, and "considered the most powerful man in the country" was put on trial in 1952 along with the Deputy Ministers of National Defense, State Security, Foreign Trade, and Finance. Of the 14 on trial, 11 were Jewish. Romania's Jewish Foreign Minister, Anna Pauker, also were tried. "Large numbers of Rumanian Jews," notes Barnet Litvinoff, "were imprisoned on the grounds of Zionist activities." [LITVINOFF, B., p. 90] One Jewish Czech of intrigue, Otto Katz, had "developed a number of Communist cells in the Hollywood film community and was a key participant in the conspiracy to kill Foreign Minister Masaryk. He was executed during the Slansky purges." [GREENBERG, M., p. 44]
Indictments against Slansky and other Jewish communist leaders in Europe stemmed in large part from association with American Jews (and self-proclaimed communists) Noel and Hermann Field, who were involved in a variety of European intrigues and were ultimately imprisoned for allegedly spying for the United States. [CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 76-85]
Further along in the Soviet spy world, other Jewish Soviet intelligence operators in America included George Gamo, who provided Moscow with "the names of left wing [American] students who might be recruited to supply secret information," [SUDOPLATOV, p. 192] Lev Vasilevsky, who from Mexico City headed efforts to get information from nuclear bomb director Oppenheimer, and Leonid Eitingon, who set up two Polish Jewish agents on America's west coast. The early lead scientist in Moscow's intelligence agency who studied stolen atomic spy secrets was also Jewish, Yakov Petrovich Terletsky.
Fleeing Stalinism, the most prominent Soviet spy ever to defect to America, General Alexander Orlov (originally Leiba Lazarevich Feldbin) was also Jewish. In the 1930s Orlov set up a Soviet spy school outside of Barcelona. An American Jew, Morris Cohen, "became one of the elitist of the elite at the special school," [ALBRIGHT, p. 31] and Cohen's first Russian spy controller in New York was also Jewish, the aforementioned Semyon Semyonov. [ALBRIGHT, p. 33] "Why [defector] Orlov never told American authorities about Cohen after the general received asylum in the United States in mid-1938 remains Orlov's secret." [ALBRIGHT, p. 32] Senator James O. Eastland once called Orlov "the highest ranking officer of the Soviet State Security [later KGB] ever to come to the side of the free world." Yet, with access these days to KGB archives, in an entire 1993 volume about Orlov, John Costello and Oleg Tsarev assert that "Orlov had played a subtle game of wits, first with the FBI and then with CIA interrogators. This enabled the Soviet agents he recruited and former colleagues he could have identified to continue clandestine operations against the West. Orlov's case was therefore a classic: it was the record of a man squeezed between divided loyalties with little room to maneuver." [COSTELLO/TSAREV, p. 10-11, p. xi, xii] (Other prominent Soviet Jews who defected to the U.S. were Valter Krivitsky (Samuel Ginzburg) and Ignati Reis (Natan Poretsky). [VAKSBERG, p. 97] )
From Poland, Jozef Swiatlo, also Jewish,
"won international fame on account of his defection in 1953. [He] was
head of Section One [in the Polish government], which dealt with foreign
intelligence services and their infiltration into key party and state
positions." [CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 70-71]
Another Polish Jew, Jerzy Bryn, a diplomat, attempted to defect from Poland to the West, changed his mind, and was sentenced to life in prison for treason. [CHECINSKI, M., 1982, p. 152]
Elsewhere, the "most senior Soviet intelligence officer ever convicted in America," Colonel Rudolf Abel, [ALBRIGHT, p. 245] was also Jewish, later freed in 1962 in exchange for American spy plane pilot Francis Gary Powers. Likewise, the "Resident Director of all Soviet spy networks in France between World Wars I and II" was Jewish, Ignace Reiss. [GREENBERG, M., p. 44]
In Britain, shockingly, the fifth Soviet spy known to have penetrated British intelligence was an heir to the fabulously wealthy capitalist Rothschild fortune, Nathaniel Meyer Victor Rothschild. An entire volume, entitled "The Fifth Man," about his betrayal was published in 1994. Rothschild "supplied espionage material to the Russians on work in everything from nuclear weaponry and radar to germ warfare developments at the biological center." [PERRY, p. xxii] Roland Perry also notes that Rothschild "was camouflaged as the Fifth Man by virtue of his powerful position in the [British] Establishment. The vast wealth of his banking dynasty embedded him in the power elite more than the other members of the [spy] Ring of Five. It was a perfect cover and served to shield him. He seemed the epitome of the ruling class in twentieth century Britain, and therefore the least likely to be a traitor ... Rothschild was more loyal to his Jewish heritage than anything English ... Rothschild assisted in the creation of a homeland [Israel] for the Jews who had been dispossessed [in Europe]." [PERRY, p. xl]
Another of the preeminent five Soviet spies in Great Britain was (non-Jew) Kim Philby. Alice Kohlman, notes the Jerusalem Post, was "the Jewish woman who had been Kim Philby's first wife, and by some accounts, instrumental in leading the young Philby to work as a Soviet agent." [ARAD, p. 21] Klaus Fuchs is another non-Jewish spy who served ten years in a British prison. A Jewish espionage associate, Ruth Werner (born Kuczynski), was never caught.
Canada? Erna Paris notes that
"The highest ranking Jew in the Canada Communist Party was Sam
Carr [born Shloime Kogan] ... Carr's crucial role as principal recruiter
of Soviet spies was revealed in the 1946 Royal [Canadian] Commission
on Espionage." [PARIS, p. 171]
Canada also had its own Jewish Congressman-traitor:
"The man who actually transmitted Canadian atomic information
to Russia was Fred Rose (born Rosenberg), the only communist
MP [Member of Parliament] ... The effects of Rose's conviction
ricocheted through the Jewish community of Montreal ... The
primarily Jewish voters of Cartier [an area in Montreal] ... found
themselves represented in Parliament by a convicted spy." [PARIS,       p. 174, 175, 181]
Upon release from prison in 1951, Rose moved to communist Poland. [PARIS, p. 176]
Communist East Germany? "Markus Wolf, the mastermind of former East Germany's spy network" was in 1993 "charged with treason, espionage, and bribery." In recent years, noted the Associated Press, Wolf "has had more appreciation of his Jewish roots." [COSTELLO, K., 5-3-93]
In the years leading up to, and during, World War II, a Polish Jew, Leopold Trepper, headed a Soviet spy ring (known as the "Red Orchestra") in western Europe that was able to infiltrate the Nazi General Staff in the early 1940s. Trepper was an early member of the Zionist Hechalutz organization. [PERRAULT, p 16] Likewise, in the early 1930s, another Jewish communist, Isiah Bir (nicknamed "Fantomas") headed a Soviet spy ring in France. His number two man in command, Alter Strom, was also Jewish. [PERRAULT, p. 18]
In Trepper's network, in earlier years, a traitor to his organization was an unnamed Dutch Jew, a "former head of a Soviet Spy ring in the United States." [PERRAULT, p. 21] Trepper's spy network, notes Gilles Perrault, consisted of "a high proportion of Jews." [PERRAULT, p. 49] These included Leo Grossvogel, Jules Jasper, "Camille," the Sokols, Abraham Raichman, "Captain" Gurevich, and many others. Trepper survived the war and, under the alias Leiba Domb, became a publisher, specializing in "Jewish classical literature." [PERRAULT, p. 509]
  During World War I, Dr. Isaac Strauss, a Jewish spy for Germany, was arrested in the United States. [BENDERSKY, J., 2000, p. 56] Incredibly, there were even Jewish spies working for Hitler's Aryan fascism, some of whom "had prewar careers as criminals ... The fact that several were so easily 'turned' [to work for Hitler] suggests that opportunism, rather than ideology, was often the dominant motive." Such spies included Hans Arnheim (sentenced to death in 1940 by the French who captured him) and Joseph Jakobs (part-Jewish; sentenced to death by the British in 1941). Rudolph Korda, a Hungarian-Jewish journalist, also headed a German spy ring til 1942. Karl Molnar (described as "part Jew"), chief of the Hungarian intelligence in Istanbul, was "a valuable collaborator with the Abwehr [the Nazi intelligence organization]." Ivan Lissner, described as "a German half-Jew," was a collaborator in Germany itself; he was even a Nazi party member. In Shanghai, Hans Mosberg served Nazi spy interests. "The terrible fact," noted the Jerusalem Post, "remains that their actions contributed, each in his own degree, to the Nazis' anti-Jewish and anti-human war machine." [WASSERSTEIN, B., 4-9-99, p. 5B]

     As Jewish scholars Stanley Rothman and S. Robet Lichter note: "The same pattern characterized the Socialist Party of America. Until 1918 SPA drew its greatest relative strength from non-Jewish areas of the country. Nonetheless, Jews already dominated the party's organization, aside from the very top leadership (i.e., Eugene Debs and his immediate followers). By 1920 Jews constituted the main prop of both the party leadershp and cadres, a position they maintained through the 1960s. They tended to avoid the very top leadership positions, however, lest attempts to develop a broader base be weakened ... The American Communist party would soon follow the same pattern ... Indeed, when instructed to change their names for party purposes, most American Jewish communists chose non-Jewish pseudonyms." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 99, 100] )

     Rothman and Lichter noted Jewish influence in shaping popular culture, against the grain of dominant mores:

     "Within the intellectual and artistic communities, Jews were also
     far to the left of their non-Jewish colleagues in the 1930s and

     1950s, and far more active in supporting communist or 'progressive'
     causes. As Jews moved into the professions, government service,
     the media, and academia, they served as a radical leaven for these
     groups and for the ever larger number of Americans coming into
     contact with them." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 331]

Jews have also been prominent in Hollywood as communist activists, a tradition decidedly against American popular opinion. As Neal Gabler noted in 1988:
"One leading communist estimated that 50 per cent of the party's
members were Jews during its heyday in the thirties and forties, and
a large minority -- and sometimes a majority -- of the party leadership
was Jewish. What was true of the national party was even truer in
Hollywood, where Jews already formed a large part of the left-leaning
artistic community." [Ring Lardner, Jr., for example, himself a CP
member, estimated that two-thirds of the communists in Los Angeles

were Jewish] [GABLER, N., 1988, p. 331]

     Dore Schary, prominent Hollywood mogul and national chairman of the Anti-Defamation League from 1963-69, was among those with FBI files as a "strong communist sympathizer." As Laird Wilcox notes:

"John Sanford, a Communist Party member and Hollywood writer who taught with Schary at the Progressive Educational Center in Hollywood, CA, sees Schary as somewhat lesss principled. When Sanford's wife, Maggie, refused to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee, Schary went after her: 'Mention a few names. What does it hurt? Mention the names of people who've been  named already.'
Sanford observed that Schary was 'one of the biggest pricks in the
business.'" [WILCOX, L., 199, p.. 63]

    As Milton Plesur notes about the Senator Joe McCarthy communist "witchhunt" era:

"In 1952, before the Senate censured McCarthy, a Gallup Poll demonstrated  that 56 percent of Catholics and 45 percent of Protestants approved of
McCarthy and his tactics, but that 98 percent of the Jews considered him a menace  to the country." [PLESUR, M., 1982, p. 135]

     Although Jews played a dominant role in Hollywood (and American) communism, including Soviet espionage [see earlier citations; Hollywood Jewish communist screenwriter Ring Lardner, Jr., estimated, for example, that two-thirds of the Communist Party members in Los Angeles were Jewish] [GABLER, N., 1988, p. 331], Jewish organizations were active in lobbying the largely Jewish film community to keep that depiction off the movie screens. As Peter Novick writes,

"Jewish organizations, throughout the fifties and well into the sixties, worked on a variety of fronts to prevent, or at least limit, the association of Jews with Communism in the public mind. Thier principal co-operative venture was the  'Hollywood Project,' in which they jointly employed a West Coast representative
who lobbied movie producers to avoid any unsympathetic reprsentations of Jews. A good deal of this lobbying dealt with the Jew-Communist issue. The producer of I Married a Communist promised to see that no Communist character had a 'name  that can even remotely be construed as Jewish.'" [NOVICK, P., 1999, p. 95]

     Whatever the context of the riots/pogroms beginning in the late nineteenth century in Russia against Jews, they must be weighed (as they never are) within the growing socio-political turmoil in that country -- a society wresting free from its foundation in (non-Jewish) indentured servitude. Violent peasants outbursts in their struggles for justice, freedom, and dignity were many: between 1826 and 1861 there were 1,186 "peasant uprisings" in Russia [WOLF, E., p. 52] struggling against feudal oppressors, whoever they were. The culmination of a century's turmoil was ultimately expressed in the Russian civil war of 1919-20 in which nine million people perished. [KAHAN, S., p. 99] Other estimates cite Russian deaths at sixteen million between 1914 and 1921, the result of war and revolution. [CLEMENTS, B., p. 172] Bryan Moynahan notes further, a decade later, that "the terror-famine inflicted as a matter of Socialist policy from the beginning of 1930 probably killed fourteen million peasants ... Whole villages were depopulated ... The Soviet Union was still massively a peasant country; more than 80 per cent of the population lived in its 600,000 hamlets and villages. The Communist attitude to country people, however, was murderous. The Party never enjoyed any rural affection." [MOYNAHAN, p. 107-108] Those thousands of peasants deported to other areas of Russia "sometimes spent weeks in the [train] cars as they rolled slowly toward their place of deportation, stacked into cattle wagons or 'Stolypin cars,' windowless prisons. The legs of some did not touch the floor for days, because they were so tightly packed that they hung suspended between each other." [MOYNAHAN, p. 113] As noted earlier, many Bolshevik Jews were at the helms of these mass oppressions and mass murders.

     British (Jewish) prime miniser Benjamin Disraeli even believed that Jews everywhere were uniformly desirous of "revenge" against Christians, using absolutely contrasting ideologies -- capitalism and communism -- to the same end through parallel "internationalism." "Men of Jewish race," he wrote, "are found at the head of every one of [the communist and socialist groups]. The people of God cooperate with atheists; the most skilled accumulators of property ally themselves with communists, the peculiar and chosen people touch the hands of the scum and low castes of Europe! And all this because they wish to destroy the ungrateful Christendum which owes them even its name and whose tyranny they can no longer endure." [ARENDT, p. 76]
"In this singular delusion," says Arendt,
"even the most ingenious of Hitler's publicity stunts, the cry of the
alliance between the Jewish capitalist and the Jewish socialist was
already anticipated. Nor can it be denied that the whole scheme,
imaginary as it was, had a logic of its own. If one started, as Disraeli
did, from the assumption that Jewish millionaires were makers of
Jewish politics, if one took into account the insults Jews had suffered
for centuries (which were real enough, but still stupidly exaggerated
by Jewish apologetic propaganda), if one had seen the not infrequent
instances when the son of a Jewish millionaire became a leader of the
workers' movement and knew from experience how closely knit Jewish
family ties were as a rule, Disraeli's image of a calculated revenge upon
Christian people was not far fetched." [ARENDT, p. 72]
Disraeli, suggests Albert Lindemann, "may have been, both as a writer and even more as a personal symbol, the most influential propagator of the concept of race in the nineteenth century, particularly publicizing the Jews' alleged taste for power, their sense of superiority, their mysteriousness, their clandestine international connections, and their arrogant pride in being a pure race." [LINDEMANN, p. 77] As Stanley Weintraub notes, Disraeli "sees crypto-Jews managing affairs: professors, ambassadors, generals, councellors, and cabinet members." In Coningsby, Disraeli wrote that the world is "governed by very different personages from what is imagined by those who are not behind the scenes." [WEINTRAUB, S., 1993, p. 216] In real life, "within days of publication" of this book, Disraeli was invited to dinner with a Rothschild. [WEINTRAUB, S., 1993, p. 219]

     Marilyn Monroe's alleged suicide has always been controversial, and there are various conspiracy notions about who would want her dead. Romeo Greenson's secret life is much clouded. As well as being Monroe's therapist, he was, like a number of Hollywood people, a Jewish activist Communist Party member; he was also part of its international Comintern. Whatever Greenson's role as a listener of movie star's confessionals, his communist ties have profound implications because Monroe had romantic affairs with President John F. Kennedy and knew a great deal about behind-the-scenes politicking, perhaps including plans against communist Cuba and Fidel Castro. Everything Monroe knew, per "opening up" in therapy, she undoubtedly told her psychotherapist. As Donald Wolfe notes:
"Once Marilyn Monroe became Greenson's patient, he became one of
the most important Comintern operatives in America; he had access
to the mind of a woman who often shared the bed with the president
of the United States and was an intimate of the attorney general
[Kennedy's brother, Robert] ... As Greenson has correctly stated,
Marilyn Monroe had a tendency to 'get involved with very destructive
people, who will engage in some sort of sado-masochistic relationship
with her.' Ironically, among these people was her psychiatrist
[Greenson], her physician [Engelberg], and her housekeeper, Eunice
Murray [who was appointed by Greenson to live with Ms. Monroe
and report back to him], who joined in a conspiracy to survey
Marilyn Monroe within a sphere of influence designed to gather
intelligence from her relationship with the president of the United
States and the attorney general." [WOLFE, D., p. 386]
Greenson, once noted his sister, Elizabeth, also had "strong ties to Israel." [KELLEY, K., p. 305]

    Yet another tragic Hollywood movie star "goddess" driven to a psychological abyss was Frances Farmer, one of the most famous film faces of the late 1930s and early 1940s. Farmer's demise is particularly disturbing. Ardent rebel and idealist, she was attracted to the largely Jewish New York communist world before she became a movie celebrity, even visiting Moscow in 1935. Attracted to serious theatre, in New York she was "escorted around the city by a delegation of local communist leaders and -- through an introduction written by [Jewish friend] Sophie Rosenstein -- [Farmer] got herself invited to a party given by members of her cherished left-wing Group Theatre" where she first met famous Jewish playwright Clifford Odets. [ARNOLD, W., p. 50] (Supposedly anti-capitalist and anti-materialist, the Group Theatre grew out of meetings at Harold Clurman's home. Eventually he, fellow Jew Lee Strasberg and "WASP shiksa" Cheryl Crawford were the Group's early directors. [SMITH, W., p. 213, photo] Clurman was also the aforementioned Stella Adler's husband.) William Arnold notes the illusory idealism of the famous (largely Jewish) Group Theatre: "The Group actors, far from being the artistic purists [Farmer] had always believed them to be, all seemed to want to go to Hollywood and make piles of money (which, eventually, most of them did)." [ARNOLD, W., p. 90]
Both Farmer's mother and sister Edith believed that such "communists" destroyed her. [ARNOLD, W., p. 94] (For her part, Frances despised her mother and placed enormous blame for her troubles upon her. In the third page of her biography she even quotes a "Jewish saying" about mothers, and bemoans her lack of a good one). [FARMER, p. 12] William Arnold, who interviewed sister Edith, notes that she believed "the Communists drove Frances crazy. [Edith] seemed particularly bitter towards the Group Theatre and its left-wing members who, she said, took criminal advantage of France's kind nature and then harassed her into insanity." [ARNOLD, W., p. 94] During the McCarthy-era communist probes, eight Group Theatre members were identified as members of a communist cell -- Joe Bromberg and Lewis Leverett were its "co-leaders." [SMITH, W., p. 157] (Generally speaking, Jewish left-wing radical Saul Alinsky once noted that "few of us survived the Joe McCarthy holocaust of the early 1950s.") [ALINSKY, S., 1971, p. xiii]

     "Since the last great wave," says Woocher, "of social activism in America in the 1960's, the rhetoric of Jewish pursuit of social justice has been somewhat muted within the polity. Greater attention has been paid to the tasks of Jewish self-preservation; the polity has, in the view of many observers, 'turned inward.' [WOOCHER, p. 87] In other words, as the Jewish community achieves increasing influence in the American economic and political worlds, it is inevitably gravitating back to the ideological base that has served Jews throughout history: the insular preoccupation with "being Jewish," Jewish self-promotion at others' expense, and the refocusing of a delineation between Jewish selves and outsiders. "For most of [American] history," says Gordon Lafar,
"American Jewry avoided the conflict between universalism and
particularism by identifying its selfish interests with the broader
dictates of liberal universalism. Indeed, in the early part of this
century, the circumstances of American politics conspired to offer
Jews an easy congruence between the general principles of liberalism
and their particular economic and social interest ... In recent years,
however, the marriage between liberal universalism and Jewish
particularism has unraveled ... It has become increasingly apparent
that the community's selfish interests diverge from the dictates of
abstract universalism, leading the Central Conference of American
Rabbis to note in 1976 that 'until the recent past our obligations to
the Jewish people and all humanity seemed congruent. At times now
these two perspectives appear to conflict.'" [LAFAR, p. 181]
"Even during the Berkeley sit-in of 1964," notes Stephen Whitfield, "according to one report, Hatvikah [the Israeli national anthem] was sung; and Students for a Democratic Society was packed with Jews, whose Jewish identity was often disguised or downplayed." [WHITFIELD, AMERICAN, p. 114]
Using the always reliable Jewish device pointing to an irrational, endemic anti-Semitism as an omnipotent threat to Jews, Ruth Wisse in 1992 framed her move to political conservatism in terms of Jewish self-protection:
"Gentiles invented ... [anti-Semitism]. Its defeat requires, on the part of
the victims and onlookers, a temporary sacrifice of the liberal optimism
upon which the whole of democratic society is founded." [WISSE, p.
Large scale Jewish abandonment of social justice movements was evidenced during the wake of the Vietnam war era, especially after the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. There were many Jews active in leftist political organizations, but with the state of Israel increasingly understood by the Left to be an imperialist and/or colonialist nation positioned against Third World struggles, "faced with the choice," says Seymour Lipset, "of giving up their attachments to Israel or dropping their ties to the Left ... a significant and visible number of Jewish leftists dropped out of the New Left." [LIPSET, p. 158] "Jews who had thought that being Jewish did not matter," says Charles Silberman, "... discovered in 1967 that Jewishness lay at the heart of their being." [SILBERMAN, p. 201] "We believe," proclaimed a Jewish socialist group called Chutzpah, "that the form and content of most Left criticism [of Israel] is inescapably anti-Semitic." [LIEBMAN, A, ANTISEM, p. 350] A Jewish sociologist in France, Raymond Aron, even declared that "If Israel disappears, I do not wish to survive." [ELLIS, M., 1990, p. 9]
"Resigning in droves," notes J.J. Goldberg, "from liberal and left-wing groups, [Jews] attacked those who did not do so as traitors to their own kind." [GOLDBERG, p. 140] "[Jews] were forced to choose," says Arthur Liebman, "between their ethnic identification and community and their universalist political movement ... Most chose their ethnic identity." [LIEBMAN, A. p. 526] "When universalistic policies conflicted with ethnic imperatives," note Stanley Rothman and S. Robert Lichter, "as in the case of radical critiques of Israel, Jews were torn in opposite directions, and their attachment to radicalism was weakened." [ROTHMAN/LICHTER, 1982, p. 114] "After 1967," remarks Gerald Sorin, "support for Israel became the common denominator of American Jewish life, so much so that no Jew who was not a staunch advocate for the Jewish state could expect to occupy a responsible position in any major Jewish organization." [SORKIN, p. 215] "A number of ex-revolutionary Marxists of Jewish background," says Alan Wald, "had become pro-Israel after 1948 and had substituted either Zionism or some other form of Jewish ethnic identity for the revolutionary internationalism to which they had once adhered." [WALD, p. 15]

     A 1996 book about convicted anti-Arab terrorist Era Rapaport even begins: "How does a nice Jewish boy from East Flatbush, Brooklyn, a gifted social worker, a marcher for civil rights, a loving husband and father, end up blowing off the legs of the PLO mayor of Nablus [in Israel]?" [RAPAPORT, E., 1996, p. 1] "Ezra," wrote an old friend to him in prison, "what did Israel do to you? You, the freedom fighter. You who walked arm in arm with thousands of Blacks in D.C. You, one of the best drug-prevention workers I've chanced on. The devoted social worker who could make a desolate human being feel like this life was worth living. Who got beaten up for defending the underprivileged. What happened to you? How could you? Are Arabs not people?" [RAPAPORT, E., 1996, p. 22]

     Left-wing journalist (Village Voice) Paul Cowan recalls being in the Peace Corps when the 1967 war began:

"I remember walking down to the Peace Corps office, and feeling quite lonely when I realized that none of the other volunteers was as disturbed as I was. I
decided to go to the Israeli Embassy, and volunteer to serve ... When I got back to the United States, and became part of the [Vietnam] anti-war movement, I found myself increasingly uncomfortable with the left's attitude toward Israel. I was a dove, but sometimes [non-Jewish girlfriend] Rachel and I would hear a criticism of Israeli military policy and find ourselves reacting very differently. She would assume that Israel was partly to blame; I'd wonder whether the criticisms contained a hint of anti-Semitism." [COWAN, P., 1987, p. 19]

Israel's 1967 Six Day War and 1973 Yom Kippur War, says Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, "evoked a sense of Jewish solidarity on the one hand, and distinctiveness from the gentile nations on the other. It strengthened deeply rooted tendencies in the Jewish tradition to stress the uniqueness and isolation of the Jewish people." [SAIDEL, p. 19] In 1969, in the midst of this Jewish exodus from universalist ideals, Leonard Fein surveyed his people and wrote that "the overwhelming ambiguity -- one might even say contradiction -- of the modern era may be stated as follows: precisely at a time when the rhetoric of universalism has reached an unprecedented peak, and precisely at a time when the myths associated with universalism have become part of conventional wisdom, the tribal instinct has reasserted itself with overwhelming vigor." [FEIN, ISRAEL, p. 3]
By the late sixties, says Common Cause president David Cohen, "the Jewish community began to look inward and deal with its own interests." [STANFIELD, p. 1849] By the early seventies, says Jack Porter and Peter Drexler, "the Jewish Left concern[ed] itself primarily with four basic issues: Israel, Soviet Jewry, the Jewish Establishment, and Jewish oppression in America [sic: the alleged oppression of Jews]. A conspicuous phenomena [was] the revival of the Zionist ideology on campus." [PORTER, p. xxx]

     "The inward turn on the part of much of American Jewish leadeship," notes Peter Novick,

"-- their insistance that 'Is it good for the Jews?' be the first, if not the only, question that Jews ask themselves -- inevitably mandated a rightward turn as well. By the 1970s Jews were preeminent among the 'haves' in American society, and the gap between Jews and non-Jew, in income as well as in representation  in all elite positions, widened over subsequent decades. Jews had everything to lose and nothing to gain from the more equal distribution of ewards which had been the aim of liberal social policies ... The political movement called neo-conservatism was almost exclusively a Jewish affair; Commentary, published by the American Jewish Committee, became America's best-known conservative magazine." [NOVICK, P., 1999, p. 183]

"In 1972 alone," noted one study of American conservatism, "[Nathan] Glazer, Sidney Hook, Lewis Feuer, and Seymour Martin Lipset appeared in the [conservative] National Review. What did these men have in common? None had been previously known as a conservative. All were Jewish. Three (Glazer, Feuer, and Lipset) had been at Berkeley (birthplace of the student revolution) early in the 1960s ... Perhaps most interesting was the fact that all had at one time been 'radical.'" [JACOBY, p. 87]
"If Jewish intellectuals gravitated toward radicalism in large numbers," notes Russell Jacoby, "they also hastily beat a retreat ... Not simply Glazer, Hook, Feuer, and Lipset but Irving Kristol, Lionel Trilling, Daniel Bell, Leslie Fiedler, and scores of others traded in their red [socialist-communist] pasts for blue chip careers ... [JACOBY, p. 87] ... The long view suggests not how many, but, compared to the non-Jews, how few Jewish intellectuals remained radicals and dissenters." [JACOBY, p. 88] By 1997, noted Murray Friedman, "conservative Jews occupy high posts at conservative think tanks and foundations, such as Bradley, Heritage, Hudson and the American Enterprise Institute." [FRIEDMAN, p. 51]
What of all of the Jewish associates of William F. Buckley's politically conservative journal, the National Review in its early years? As George Nash notes:
"These premature Jewish conservatives had something else in common;
each in his youth had been a student radical." [NASH, G., 2000, p. 130]
Frank Chodorov had been an anarchist, Morrie Ryskind once joined the Intercollegiate Society of Socialists. William Schlamm "joined the Communist Youth Movement" and was once the "editor-in-chief of the Austrian Communist Party's periodical Die Rote Fahne (Red Flag)." Eugene Lyons "worked in the New York office of the Soviet agency Tass for four years" and later was UPI's correspondent in Moscow. "Although [Lyons] was never a formal member of the Communist Party," says Nash, "he was enthusiastic nonetheless, determined to use his new journalistic post 'in the furtherment of the cause.'" Frank Meyer joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and became "the national secretary of the Party's student bureau and overseer of several hundred disciplined Party members in British universities." Marvin Liebman "joined the Young Communist League in New York City." Ralph de Toledano, and editor at Newsweek, never formally joined the communist movement, but was, as he wrote, on the Communist Party's "cozy periphery." [NASH, G., 2000, p. 130-132] Will Herberg, religion editor for the National Review had also been a communist in his youth. "Until nine or ten years ago," he wrote in 1970, "I was a thoroughgoing Marxist ... I had spent most of my life int he radical movement ... Marxism was to me, and to others like me, a religion, and ethic, and a theology ..." [HERBERG, W., 1970, p. 101]
(Among these men, Liebman was also an activist in the Zionist American League for a Free Palestine, Chodorov became an "ardent supporter of Israel," and Toledano was an "Israeli sympathizer," telling a rabbi that his "trip [to Israel] in 1969 was one of the most moving travel experiences of his life.") [NASH, G., 2000, p. 146-147]
In 1975, Jewish historian Daniel Boorstin was appointed to be the Librarian of Congress by Republican President Gerald Ford. Boorstin had once been a communist activist as a Harvard student, but by the 1970s he was "an active Republican and outspoken foe of the antiwar and civil rights movements." [WIENER, J., 1991, p. 55, 59] Even the Christian evangelical World newsweekly (which has over 100,000 subscribers, reasonably comparable in size to the "premier magazine for evangelical Christians," Billy Graham's Christianity Today, which has a circulation of 150,000) is edited by Marvin Olasky. Olasky is a "Jew turned Marxist turned born-again Christian ... [He] oversees the magazine from his custom-built home in the posh hills of Austin, Texas ... He declared himself an atheist at 14, and became a committed Marxist at Yale -- even joining the Communist Party and touring the Soviet Union." [PERINA, K., JUNE 2000]
"The Left is concerned with the oppression of workers, Third World people, including the Palestinians, people of colour, homosexuals, and so on ...," wrote Philip Mendes in 1996, "Jews in turn have moved away from the Left and socio-economic margins of western society into more established economic and social circles." [MENDES, p. 108]
Jews starting out as youthful "socialist" radicals who end up making complete ideological U-turns, with the same fervor into its capitalist opposite are legion: expeditious sell-outs to economic self-interest, pushing to the fore whatever the social milieu. The corrupt socialist activist Bernie Cornfeld [see later chapter] who eventually swindled people around the world out of tens of millions of dollars was a sensational example, as was Martin Frankel [see elsewhere], multi-million dollar scamster of the Vatican. Frankel was described by a former professor who knew him in earlier years as having "political views [that] were left-wing and unconventional." [KAHN, J., 6-25-99, p. A1] Jerry Rubin, the co-founder of the anarchist 1960's "Yippie" party who ended up in a suit on Wall Street, is another example of this trend, the plugging into whatever ideology that could propel self-interest. "Politics and rebellion distinguished the 60s," Rubin wrote in 1980, "Money ... will capture the passion of the 80s." American-born Rubin "picked up an interest in the New Left while studying sociology in Israel." [COLLINS/SPEACE, 1995, p. 615-616]
Seth Glickenhaus also started out as idealist socialist, grew into "a cross between an anarchist and a libertarian," and eventually settled on being a fabulously wealthy financier. Between 1987-97 his Wall Street investment firm, Glickenhaus and Co., "topped the ratings in estimates gains." [GIZPENC, p. 8] In Poland, the complete ideological change of Jewish communist propagandist Jerzy Urban to the winds around him is breathtaking. "Jerzy Urban reigned as Poland's prince of propaganda for almost 10 year. The acid-tongued spokesman for the former communist government enjoyed international notoriety as he clearly and sarcastically orchestrated the news during the dark years of the Solidarity trade union. Now, too, years after the fall of communism, Urban is still in the news business, but with a strange and lucrative twist. Urban is a crusading capitalist -- editing his own newspaper and writing books." [VANCOUVER SUN, p. B10] (In Russia, with the demise of communism, most of top capitalist entrepreneurs are Jews.) [See mass media chapter, section 2]
Crain's Chicago Business journal noted the case of another Jewish business mogul, this one in computer software, in 1988: "One of the highest paid CEOs in the United States, Mitchell Kapor of Lotus Development Corporation ... is a former disc jockey who played the Byrds and the Dead and supported radical political groups." [HENDERSON, A., 76-13-88, p. T14] Then there is the case of Jewish entrepreneur Gilbert Trigano, who headed the decadent luxury resort world of "Club Med," international playground of the rich, and built it to power. Trigano "was a grocer's son and former member of the French communist party." [REGULY, E., 3-25-88, p. 24]
Then there is the case of Jewish politician Norm Coleman:
"Coleman was a radical college protester in the 1970s. He was a moderate DFLer [Democrat] when elected mayor of St. Paul [in 1993]. He defected to the Republican Party less than two years ago, and in June he told conservative activists at the state party convention that their agenda was his." [SMITH, D., 10-21-98, p. 1A]

     How about Marxist homosexual, "radical historian," and "oracle for the New Left" Harvey Goldberg? "In his seven years at the University of Wisconsin [leading up to a 1970 bombing on the campus],

"he had created a virtual cult. Thousands of students who, as a result of the Cold War had reached college age knowing nothing of the socialist tradition, had been introduced to that forbidden fruit
by Harvey Goldberg. His classes  had become like convenings of a revolutionary republic ... [BATES, T., 1992, p. 52, 53] ... After a bout with liver cancer, Harvey Goldberg passed away in  in 1987. His executors discovered a stock portfolio that the secretive professor had managed himself. He had died a millionaire." [BATES, T., 1992, p. 445]

    Former Jewish leftist Ronald Rodash notes that

"A few months ago, an obituary appeared of the last living survivor of the Triangle Fire, a Jewish woman who went on in life to lecture throughout the nation to college students about the fire and the cause of labor, which eventually unionized the garment grades. The obituary ended with the amazing note  that her granddaughter was one of the top executives in Hollywood of a major motion picture company! One can be assured that in the recent negotiations with the writers who were threatening to strike, we know which  side of the issue her granddaughter was." [RADOSH, R., 6-5-01]

     Journalist Ross Wetzsteon, married to a Jewish woman, notes in an article championing Jewish identity that "through my marriage I came to know another Jewish 'type,' the Communist as stockbroker, perusing with equal fervor The Daily Worker and the Wall Street Journal." [WETZSTEON, R., SEPT 6-12, 1998] David Horowitz, former communist, even once raised money to buy the Black Panthers a building in Oakland, California. Today he's a conservative activist and ardent Zionist, at every occasion condemning the leftist principles of his past life. A. M. Rosenthal, chief editor of the New York Times, notes Edwin Diamond, "was raised in a socialist household ... [His sister Ruth was] a member of the Young Communist League ... None of Rosenthal's red-diaper background was surprising, given the secularist ideals of the time among many immigrant Jews." [DIAMOND, E., 1993, p. 170-171]

Billionaire capitalist (and Jewish) oil tycoon Armand Hammer started out as a secret courier for the Soviets, "delivering money [from Russia] to communist leaders in the United States." [EPSTEIN, E., 1996, p. 64, 67] Among his American-based family's early holdings in Russia during early years of the communist revolution was an asbestos mine. ("The conditions under which the miners worked were horrendous even by Russia's low standards.") [EPSTEIN, A., p. 92] Later Hammer profited from the sale of Russian art in New York City. He also became involved, through his firm United Distillers, in the mob-linked liquor business. [EPSTEIN, p. 147] "Hammer celebrated his fifty-fifth birthday cruising around Manhattan on his yacht." [EPSTEIN, p. 162] Lifelong atheist, in later life Hammer reverted back to his Jewish roots, choosing the bar mitzvah name Avraham Ben Yehuda Maccabee. [EPSTEIN, p. 21]
Wealthy British Jewish media mogul Robert Maxwell was in some ways a Hammer clone. Maxwell also was once a courier and money launderer for Soviet Russia, [DAVIES, p. 7] later becoming a fabulously rich and particularly corrupt capitalist. [See elsewhere]
Yet another such (American) ideological chameleon is Harvey Wasserman -- former hippie, socialist, SDS member, co-founder of Liberation News Service, and author of the popular anti-establishment Harvey Wasserman's History of the United States. By the late 1980s Wasserman was president of his family's Wasserman Uniform and Shoe Company, selling Mace and other equipment to police departments. [CHAFETS, p. 185-187]
Wasserman too -- the former universalistactivist and radicalfor a common humanity -- has, in later life, made the familiar pilgrimage back to Jewish tribalism, saying:
"I'll admit something that's a little strange -- I feel more comfortable
around Jews. I know that's strange, considering the life I've led, but it's
the truth. I feel more comfortable. I was amazed to discover that I
wanted to have children with a Jewish woman. It's completely
inconsistent but that's how I feel." [CHAFETS, p. 189]
Wasserman's common-law wife is even more chauvinist, raising the familiar shield of the Holocaust to deflect direct exposure of her naked racism, remarking that the father of her children
"had to be a Jew. Harry's great, I love him. But even more important, I
could trace his family all the way back to his great-grandparents, and all
of them were Jews ... I could never have a child with a gentile, or
someone with gentile blood. You see, somewhere in his genetic history
there could be someone who put my family into the gas chambers."
[CHAFETS, p. 191]
What about the sleazy television talk-show host Jerry Springer, son of Holocaust survivors? "I've never changed my politics," he says today. A journalist adds that "Mr. Springer likes to say [this] about his transformation from '60s anti-establishment idealist to talk-show high sleazio ... He sees the media criticism of his show as the ultimate bias of elitism and racism." [LIPPERT, B., 5-3-98, p. D6] This is a man who "lives in a 91st floor penthouse apartment overlooking Lake Michigan in Chicago's ritziest neighborhood and is ferried to and fro in a chauffeur-driven limo." [CAREY/WITHERIDGE, 11-2-98] Wealthy New York theatre mogul Joseph Papp? "From the age of fifteen till he was in his early thirties, Joe had been a Communist." [EPSTEIN, H., 1994, p. 16]
And what are we to make of the strange leftist universalism of prominent Jewish author Arthur Koestler and the psychological currents behind it? The (Jewish) Forward notes that a professor of Jewish studies in England, David Cesarani,
"makes the claim, based on allegations by the author's former
friends, that Koestler was a 'serial rapist.' The assertion that one
of this century's renowned anti-totalitarian thinkers was a violent
dictator in her personal relationships with women ignited debate
in the British press about whether Koestler's private life overshadows
his public contributions ... [Cesarani] seems to see Koestler's
Jewishness as an all-encompassing force that had an impact on
everything from his sexual promiscuity to his ideas about
communism." [BRAHMS, p. 11]
Like many Jews, Village Voice writer Paul Cowan is a "fugitive from radicalism who has converted to [Jewish] Orthodoxy." [BRENNER, p. 337] As a wealthy student at elite WASP prep school Choate, he and other Jews refused to recite Christian-oriented school prayers: "I remember holding my head high those nights, feeling an incrediby strong surge of tribal loyalty that I'd never before experienced ... After the four years at Choate ... once I'd been thorugh that experience, my mother's message about the six million [Holocaust victims] became, perhaps, the single most important fact of my life." [COWAN, P., 1982, p. 12, 15] But the consummate symbol of the exploitation of anti-materialist themes for profit is probably Jewish pop star Bob Dylan who made a very lucrative career singing social conscience "moral" ballads about dignity and righteousness in the 1960s. Meanwhile, Dylan led a reclusively elitist and affluent life from limousines. Apparently not rich enough, in 1996 one of his most famous songs, "The Times They-Are-A-Changin'" was sold to a bank in Montreal, Canada, for use in an ad campaign. As one London newspaper noted, many former Dylan followers were "furious" about the new use of the song that was once "an anthem for the sixties generation that waged war on materialism and philosophized on the evils of pin-striped suits." [MILNER, C., p. 4]
"Now Jewish interests and welfare," notes Stephen Whitfield, "without which Jewish moral values cannot be perpetuated, are dependent upon a secure and thriving Israel, whose enemies in the world arena are usually emanated from the left." [WHITFIELD, p. 120, American] "Scratch an American Jew," notes longtime Jewish activist Earl Raab, "and you find a democratic voter, but if you scratch deeper, you will not find a liberal." [FRIEDMAN, M., p. 48] "Most Jews in New York," says New York University professor Mitchell Moss, "are concerned with safety, quality of life and taxes, not public schools and social services, the two largest areas of public expenditure. Almost half of the Jews in New York send their children to independent and religious schools." [FRIEDMAN, M, p. 50]

     Today's Jewish high status and attendant world view represent the material opposite of much of immigrant American Jewry's sense of itself at the turn of the twentieth century. As Hania Diner notes:
"Both left-wing radicalism and Zionism shaped the political and
ideological lives of many Jews who emigrated to the United States
beginning in the 1880s ... [DINER, p. 7] ... Socialism proved such an
attractive political philosophy to these immigrant Jews because
of the brutal sweatshop conditions under which so many worked,
usually in factories owned by other Jews ... [DINER, p. 9] ... [In 1925]
such predominantly Jewish unions as the ILGWU, the United
Cloth Hat and Cap Makers, and the Furrier's Union all sent
[communist] May Day greetings to ... the black socialist magazine,
the Messenger." [DINER, p. 202]
This radically universalist expression, or whatever else it was (transitory strategy to deconstruct the existing Christian-oriented culture?), has proven over the years to have been remarkably illusory and shallow-- merely a means to a self-promotive end -- as Jewry has quickly ascended the American economic ladder. As Arthur Hertzberg notes about America's early twentieth century Russian Jewish population, supposedly rooted so deeply in socialist ethics, "Jews were uniquely visible in this stampede toward wealth because they were moving more rapidly upward from the poverty of their youth than any other group in America. This intense passion for success was noted by others, and not always with approval." [HERTZBERG, A., 1989, p. 331]
(In Latin America too, notes Judith Elkin, immigrant Jews were quick to dismiss their European-based socialist political radicalism in their new environments: "Jews had never developed linkages with non-Jewish campesinos; ... Contact with the proletariat was broken. This is a startling fact, considering that so large and so vocal a portion of Jewish immigrants arrived with leftist and universalist ideals.") [ELKIN, 1998, p. 148]
As Nathan Glazer noted about the American social and political world in 1971:
"All the roles that Jews play are roles that the New Left disapproves of,
and wishes to reduce ... [The Left is critical] of all private business,
and of its whole associated institutional complex -- lawyers,
stockbrokers, accountants, etc. -- in which Jews are prominent.
The kinds of society it admires have no place for occupations in which
Jews have tended to cluster in recent history." [SHAPIRO, E., 1999,
p. 199]

On the Jewish Question, by Karl Marx